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Oxygen-Ozone (O3) is an activated form of oxygen where there are three atoms of oxygen attached together. Ozone behaves differently than O2 because it is unstable, and hence far more energetic and potentially oxidative than O2. When the ozone molecule breaks apart it gives rise to singlet oxygen (O1), which is a reactive oxygen species that can oxidize other molecules. Basically, singlet oxygen is a higher energy state molecular oxygen species. As such, singlet oxygen and its by-products are very energetic oxidizers and are capable of "burning up" waste products, environmental toxins, and microbes.
The discovery of ozone gas in 1840 is credited to Christian Schonebein, a professor of physics and chemistry at the University of Basel. Because this gas has a characteristic smell, he called it “Ozein” the German word to express the term “smell”. Among the first uses in the history of ozone was the disinfection of water. Today more than 2500 cities throughout the world use ozone in the water purification process. Due to ozone’s antimicrobial and oxidative properties, it has also been extensively used for more than a century in the treatment of infectious diseases, numerous degenerative diseases, and cancer. Ozone’s effects are proven, consistent, and safe with minimal and preventable side effects. Mechanism of actions is by inactivation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoa, stimulation of oxygen metabolism, and activation of the immune system.
In the late 1800’s Austrian surgeon Edwin Payr became acquainted with ozone when it was used on him by his dentist, E.A. Fisch. Dr. Fisch applied for a patent on an ozone generator called “Cytozon,” still used in some medical ozone generators today. Dr. Payr became so enthusiastic about medical ozone that he published a 290-page book entitled, “On Treatment with Ozone in Surgery,” which he presented to the German Surgical Society in Berlin. This was the beginning of the use of ozone in medicine as we know it today. The discovery crossed the ocean to North America and in 1885, the Florida Medical Association published the first textbook on medical applications of ozone, written by Dr. Charles J. Kenworth.
In 1911, Dr. Noble Eberhart, head of the Department of Physiology of Loyola Chicago University used ozone to treat tuberculosis, anemia, whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, hay fever, insomnia, pneumonia, diabetes, gout and syphilis. Dr. Eberhart created the first university teaching center dedicated among other things to ozone therapy.
During World-War-One, German physicians used ozone to treat wounds and infections. In September 1896, the electrical genius Nikola Tesla patented his first ozone generator, and in 1900 he formed the Tesla Ozone Co. Tesla sold ozone machines to doctors for medical use. Ozone generators have greatly advanced since that time. Oxygen-ozone therapy has spread worldwide with considerable research being conducted into ozone’s disease curing effects.
In the late 1980s, reports had emerged that German physicians were successfully treating HIV patients with IV ozone-oxygen applied as autohemotherapy. In 1987, Dr. Renate Viebahn and Dr. Siegfried Rilling collaborated on the publication of "The Use of Ozone in Medicine", now a popular medical text on ozone application. Today, oxygen-ozone therapy has become an inherent element in the treatment of infection in such fields as surgery, dermatology, cosmetics, and dentistry.
Currently, ozone therapy is used in Spain, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Greece, Monaco, Canada, fourteen US states, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Russia, Israel, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, India, China, South Korea, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. It is estimated that over ten million oxygen-ozone treatments have been given to over one million patients in Germany alone over the last forty years. This practice is mostly employed in private clinics.
Even though numerous ozone studies have been conducted on infectious diseases, degenerative joint and spinal diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, not as many clinical trials have been published on ozone’s effect on cancer. This lack of clinical trials in the field of immunology and cancer has led to prejudice and skepticism of ozone-oxygen therapy. Unfortunately, cancer industry politics have further complicated medical oxygen-ozone’s therapy, and consequently ozone-oxygen therapy is almost completely unknown in North America. The use of medical ozone is accepted in Germany, Switzerland and Austria and is tolerated by France, England, Italy, and Canada, and 14 states in the United States. Today most of the research in medical ozone takes place in Cuba and Russia. In fact, ozone therapy is in the medical mainstream in Russia, and especially Cuba.
There is still some concern as to the legal status of medical ozone regarding the United States Federal laws. It is important to know that historically many doctors in the U.S. have been prosecuted and even incarcerated for using oxygen-ozone therapy to treat their patients. Like so many other complementary and alternative therapies, controversy over oxidative therapy with ozone is heated and ongoing.
Medical oxygen-ozone is generally given either by recirculatory autohemo-perfusion, injection, rectal insufflation, via steam cabinet, or orally in water. Of course, the administering physician must be experience with the ozone techniques used to achieve the desired effect and avoid side effects.
The following selected articles on oxygen-ozone therapy describe its mechanisms in detoxifying the body, improving oxygenation, and stimulating the immune system to fight infectious organisms and cancerous cells.
Oxygen-Ozone Therapy: Biological and Clinical Effects
Aslaner, Arif, Tuğrul Çakır, Betül Çelik, Uğur Doğan, Cebrail Akyüz, Ahmet Baştürk, Cemal Polat, Umut Gündüz, Burhan Mayir, and Ahmet Özer Şehirli. The protective effect of intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate. International journal of clinical and experimental medicine 8, no. 8 (2015): 13303.
Belianin, Il., Abdullah, R. Iu., 2000. Use of soluble ozone in combined treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidative defense system. Probl. Tuberk 3: 41–44.
Bocci, Velio, Iacopo Zanardi, Emma Borrelli, and Valter Travagli. Reliable and effective oxygen‐ozone therapy at a crossroads with ozonated saline infusion and ozone rectal insufflation. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 64, no. 4 (2012): 482-489.
Bocci, Velio Alvaro. Scientific and medical aspects of ozone therapy. State of the art. Archives of medical research 37.4 (2006): 425-435.
Bocci, Velio. Oxygen-ozone therapy: a critical evaluation. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
Bocci, Velio, Emma Borrelli, Valter Travagli, and Iacopo Zanardi. The ozone paradox: ozone is a strong oxidant as well as a medical drug. Medicinal research reviews 29, no. 4 (2009): 646-682.
Bocci, V. The case for oxygen-ozonetherapy. British journal of biomedical science 64, no. 1 (2007): 44-49.
Bocci, Velio A., Iacopo Zanardi, and Valter Travagli. Ozone acting on human blood yields a hormetic dose-response relationship. Journal of translational medicine 9, no. 1 (2011): 66.
Bocci, Velio, Iacopo Zanardi, and Valter Travagli. Oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture. A critical evaluation of the various methods clarifies positive and negative aspects. Medical gas research 1, no. 1 (2011): 6.
Bocci, V. Ozone as a bioregulator. Pharmacology and toxicology of ozonetherapy today. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 10, no. 2 (1996): 31-53.
Caliskan, Bahadir, Ahmet Guven, Mehmet Ozler, Tuncer Cayci, Ayhan Ozcan, Orhan Bedir, Ilhami Surer, and Ahmet Korkmaz. Ozone therapy prevents renal inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of acute pyelonephritis. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 71, no. 6 (2011): 473-480.
Clavo, Bernardino, Juan L. Pérez, Laura López, Gerardo Suárez, Marta Lloret, Victor Rodríguez, David Macías et al. Effect of ozone therapy on muscle oxygenation. The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 9, no. 2 (2003): 251-256.
Corea, Francesco, Serena Amici, Nicola Murgia, and Nicola Tambasco. A case of vertebrobasilar stroke during oxygen-ozone therapy. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases 13, no. 6 (2004): 259-261.
Demirbag, Suzi, Bulent Uysal, Ahmet Guven, Tuncer Cayci, Mehmet Ozler, Ayhan Ozcan, Umit Kaldirim, Ilhami Surer, and Ahmet Korkmaz. Effects of medical ozone therapy on acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Renal failure 32, no. 4 (2010): 493-497.
Elvis, A. M., & Ekta, J. S. (2011, January–June). Ozone therapy: A clinical review. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 2(1), 66–70.
Fuccio, C., Luongo, C., Capodanno, P., Giordano, C., Scafuro, M. A., Siniscalco, D., ... Berrino, L. (2009, January 28). A single subcutaneous injection of ozone prevents allodynia and decreases the over-expression of pro-inflammatory caspases in the orbito-frontal cortex of neuropathic mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 603(1–3), 42–49.
Górnicki½, Albert, and Aleksander Gutsze. In vitro effects of ozone on human erythrocyte membranes: an EPR study. (2000).
Grootveld, Martin, Aylin Baysan, N. Sidiiqui, Julia Sim, Christopher Silwood, and Edward Lynch. History of the clinical applications of ozone. Ozone: the revolution in dentistry. London: Quintessence Publishing Co (2004): 23-30.
Gul, Husamettin, Bulent Uysal, Erdinc Cakir, Halil Yaman, Enis Macit, Ali Osman Yildirim, Yusuf Emrah Eyi et al. The protective effects of ozone therapy in a rat model of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 34, no. 1 (2012): 81-86.
Hernandez, F., Calunga, F., Turrent Figueras, J. et al., 2005. Ozone therapy effects on biomarkers and lung function in asthma. Arch. Med. Res. 36:549–554.
Huth, Karin C., Franz M. Jakob, Bernd Saugel, Christian Cappello, Ekaterini Paschos, Regina Hollweck, Reinhard Hickel, and Korbinian Brand. Effect of ozone on oral cells compared with established antimicrobials. European journal of oral sciences 114, no. 5 (2006): 435-440.
Isik, Arda, Kemal Peker, Cebrail Gursul, Ilyas Sayar, Deniz Firat, Ismayil Yilmaz, and Ismail Demiryilmaz. The effect of ozone and naringin on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in an experimental model. International journal of surgery 21 (2015): 38-44.
Jerrett, Michael, Richard T. Burnett, C. Arden Pope III, Kazuhiko Ito, George Thurston, Daniel Krewski, Yuanli Shi, Eugenia Calle, and Michael Thun. Long-term ozone exposure and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 360, no. 11 (2009): 1085-1095.
Johansson, E., Claesson, R., Van Dijken, J. W. (2009, June). Antibacterial effect of ozone on cariogenic bacterial species. Journal of Dentistry, 37(6), 449–453.
Khatri, Isha, Ganapathi Moger, and N. Anil Kumar. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis. Indian Journal of Dental Research 26, no. 2 (2015): 158.
Kim, Hee Su, Sun Up Noh, Ye Won Han, Kyoung Moon Kim, Hoon Kang, Hyung Ok Kim, and Young Min Park. Therapeutic effects of topical application of ozone on acute cutaneous wound healing. Journal of Korean Medical Science 24, no. 3 (2009): 368-374.
Kızıltan, Huriye Şenay, Ayşe Güneş Bayir, Gul Yucesan, Ali Hikmet Eris, Kadir İdin, Cumali Karatoprak, Teoman Aydin, Adem Akcakaya, and Alpaslan Mayadagli. Medical ozone and radiotherapy in a peritoneal, Erlich-ascites, tumor-cell model. Altern Ther Health Med 21, no. 2 (2015): 24-29.
Kucuksezer, Umut Can, Esma Zekiroglu, Pınar Kasapoglu, Suzan Adin-Cinar, Esin Aktas-Cetin, and Gunnur Deniz. A stimulatory role of ozone exposure on human natural killer cells. Immunological investigations 43, no. 1 (2014): 1-12.
Li, Li-Jie, Yun-Gao Yang, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Sui-Feng Nie, Ze Li, Feng Li, He-Yu Hua, Yan-Jun Hu, Hong-Shuan Zhang, and Ya-Bing Guo. Protective effects of medical ozone combined with traditional Chinese medicine against chemically-induced hepatic injury in dogs. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 13, no. 45 (2007): 5989.
Martínez-Sánchez G, Delgado-Roche L, Díaz-Batista A, Pérez-Davison G, Re L. Effects of ozone therapy on haemostatic and oxidative stress index in coronary artery disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Sep 15; 691(1-3):156-62. Epub 2012 Jul 13.Martínez-Sánchez G, Al-Dalain SM,
Menéndez S, Re L, Giuliani A, Candelario-Jalil E, Alvarez H, Fernández-Montequín JI, León OS. Therapeutic efficacy of ozone in patients with diabetic foot. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Oct 31; 523(1-3):151-61. Epub 2005 Sep 29.
Oztosun, Muzaffer, Emin Ozgur Akgul, Erdinc Cakir, Tuncer Cayci, Bulent Uysal, Recai Ogur, Ayhan Ozcan, Taner Ozgurtas, Ahmet Guven, and Ahmet Korkmaz. The effects of medical ozone therapy on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Renal failure 34, no. 7 (2012): 921-925.
Pilkington, K., CAM-Cancer Consortium. Ozone therapy: Is it safe? September 11, 2013.
Re, Lamberto, Mohamed N. Mawsouf, Silvia Menéndez, Olga S. León, Gregorio M. Sánchez, and Frank Hernández. Ozone therapy: clinical and basic evidence of its therapeutic potential. Archives of medical research 39, no. 1 (2008): 17-26.
Riva Sanseverino, E., Meduri, R.A., Pizzino, A., Prantera, M., Martini, E., 1990. Effects of oxygen-ozone therapy on age-related degenerative retinal maculopathy. Panminerva Med 32, 77–84.
Sagai, M., & Bocci, V. (2011, December 20). Mechanisms of action involved in ozone therapy: Is healing induced via a mild oxidative stress? Medical Gas Research, 1, 29.
Schulz, Siegfried, Ulrich Häussler, Robert Mandic, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Andreas Neubauer, Anja A. Dünne, Jochen A. Werner, Eberhard Weihe, and Michael Bette. Treatment with ozone/oxygen‐pneumoperitoneum results in complete remission of rabbit squamous cell carcinomas. International journal of cancer 122, no. 10 (2008): 2360-2367.
Seidler, V., I. Linetskiy, H. Hubálková, H. Stankova, R. Smucler, and J. Mazánek. Ozone and its usage in general medicine and dentistry. A review article. Prague Med Rep109, no. 1 (2008): 5-13.
Shoemaker, Judith M. Ozone therapy: History, physiology, indications, results. Nottingham, PA (2005).
Sunnen, Gérard V. Ozone in medicine: overview and future directions. J Adv Med 1, no. 3 (1988): 15974.
Tapia, Schwartz Adriana, and Matínez Sanchez Grigorio. Ozone therapy and its scientific foundations. Биорадикалы и антиоксиданты 1, no. 1 (2014).
Tusat, Mustafa, Ahmet Mentese, Selim Demir, Ahmet Alver, and Mustafa Imamoglu. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats. International braz j urol 43, no. 6 (2017): 1160-1166.
Tylicki, Leszek, Bogdan Biedunkiewicz, Tomasz Nieweglowski, Andrzej Chamienia, Alicja Debska Slizien, Joanna Luty, Wieslawa Lysiak‐Szydlowska, and Boleslaw Rutkowski. Ozonated autohemotherapy in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: influence on lipid profile and endothelium. Artificial organs 28, no. 2 (2004): 234-237.
Ucar, Fatma, Mine Yavuz Taslipinar, Bilal Firat Alp, Ibrahim Aydin, Fevzi Nuri Aydin, Mehmet Agilli, Mehmet Toygar et al. The effects of N-acetylcysteine and ozone therapy on oxidative stress and inflammation in acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity model. Renal failure 35, no. 5 (2013): 640-647.
Uysal, Bulent, Mehmet Yasar, Nail Ersoz, Omer Coskun, Abdullah Kilic, Tuncer Cayc, Bulent Kurt, Sukru Oter, Ahmet Korkmaz, and Ahmet Guven. Efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and medical ozone therapy in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreas 39, no. 1 (2010): 9-15.
Uysal, Bulent, Suzi Demirbag, Yavuz Poyrazoglu, Tuncer Cayci, Narter Yesildaglar, Ahmet Guven, Ilhami Sürer, and Ahmet Korkmaz. Medical ozone therapy decreases postoperative uterine adhesion formation in rats. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics 286, no. 5 (2012): 1201-1207.
Viebahn-Haensler, Renate. Milestones of medical ozone. Rev Soc Esp Dolor 12 (2005): 3-9.
Wainstein, Julio, Ze'ev Feldbrin, Mona Boaz, and Ilana Harman-Boehm. Efficacy of ozone–oxygen therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes technology & therapeutics 13, no. 12 (2011): 1255-1260.
Yenigun, Alper, Fadlullah Aksoy, Remzi Dogan, Fahrettin Yilmaz, Bayram Veyseller, Orhan Ozturan, and Burak Ozturk. Medical ozone therapy for the inner ear acoustic trauma. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 77, no. 9 (2013): 1512-1517.
Ozone-Oxygen Therapy in Cancer and Tumors
Bocci, Velio, Alessandra Larini, and Vanna Micheli. "Restoration of normoxia by ozone therapy may control neoplastic growth: a review and a working hypothesis." Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 11, no. 2 (2005): 257-265.
Bocci, V. "Ozontherapy as a Possible Biological Response Modifier in Cancer." Complementary Medicine Research 5, no. 2 (1998): 54-60.
Clavo, Bernardino, Juan L. Pérez, Laura López, Gerardo Suárez, Marta Lloret, Victor Rodríguez, David Macías et al. "Ozone therapy for tumor oxygenation: a pilot study." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1, no. 1 (2004): 93-98.
Clavo, Bernardino, Ana Ruiz, Marta Lloret, Laura López, Gerardo Suárez, David Macías, Victor Rodríguez et al. "Adjuvant ozonetherapy in advanced head and neck tumors: A comparative study." Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1, no. 3 (2004): 321-325.
HASELTINE, WILLIAM A., and ALAN D. D'ANDREA. "Ozone Selectively Inhibits Growth of Human Cancer Cells." Chem. Biol. Interact 20 (1978): 123.
Schulz, Siegfried, Ulrich Häussler, Robert Mandic, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Andreas Neubauer, Anja A. Dünne, Jochen A. Werner, Eberhard Weihe, and Michael Bette. "Treatment with ozone/oxygen‐pneumoperitoneum results in complete remission of rabbit squamous cell carcinomas." International journal of cancer 122, no. 10 (2008): 2360-2367.
Singh, Vatsal, Rishabh Gupta, Sandeep Kumar, and Bhaskar Agarwal. "Role of Ozone Therapy and Cancer: Myth or Reality?."
Sweet, Frederick, Ming-Shian Kao, S. C. Lee, Will L. Hagar, and Wileen E. Sweet. "Ozone selectively inhibits growth of human cancer cells." Science 209, no. 4459 (1980): 931-933.
Oxygen-Ozone Therapy for Hepatitis
Gu, Xi-bing, Xiao-juan Yang, Hong-ying Zhu, Yue-qin Xu, and Xia-ying Liu. "Effect of medical ozone therapy on renal blood flow and renal function of patients with chronic severe hepatitis." Chinese medical journal 123, no. 18 (2010): 2510-2513.
Mawsouf, M. N., T. T. Tanbouli, and R. Viebahn-Hänsler. "Ozone Therapy in Patients with Viral Hepatitis C: Ten Years' Experience." Ozone: science & engineering 34, no. 6 (2012): 451-458.
Sunnen, Gerard V. "Hepatitis C and Ozone therapy." Ozone in Medicine (2001).
Turkmen, Aygen, Sevgi Kesici, Nevzat Elmali, Cihan Can Cangir, and Mensure Cakirguz. "Chronic hepatitis B and ozone therapy." J Case Rep Pract 3, no. 2 (2015): 38-9.
Vaughn, J. M., Chen, Y. S., Novotny, J. F., and Strout, D., 1990. Effects of ozone treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus. Can. J. Microbiol. 36:557–560.
Zaky, Saad, Sherif Ebrahiem Kamel, Magda Shahata Hassan, Nadia Abdel Sallam, Mohamad Ahmad Shahata, Shaaban Redwan Helal, and Heba Mahmoud. Preliminary results of ozone therapy as a possible treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 17, no. 3 (2011): 259-263.
Oxygen-Ozone Therapy for Orthopedic Conditions
The use of ozone in orthopedic diseases has become a very popular and successful therapy in comparison to surgical procedures. Results from several clinical studies represent ozone therapy as a method of choice for treating many spinal and arthritic conditions. Additionally, this method may be considered an option in treating disc herniation-related low back pain that has failed to respond to conservative treatment, representing an alternative to surgery.
Andreula, Cosma F., Luigi Simonetti, Fabio De Santis, Raffaele Agati, Renata Ricci, and Marco Leonardi. Minimally invasive oxygen-ozone therapy for lumbar disk herniation. American Journal of Neuroradiology 24, no. 5 (2003): 996-1000.
Bocci V, Borrelli E, Zanardi I, Travagli V. The usefulness of ozone treatment in spinal pain. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015; 9:2677-85. Epub 2015 May 15.
Bonetti, Matteo, A. Fontana, and F. Albertini. CT-guided oxygen-ozone treatment for first degree spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis. In Advanced Peripheral Nerve Surgery and Minimal Invasive Spinal Surgery, pp. 87-92. Springer, Vienna, 2005.
Gallucci, Massimo, Nicola Limbucci, Luigi Zugaro, Antonio Barile, Emmanouil Stavroulis, Alessandro Ricci, Renato Galzio, and Carlo Masciocchi. Sciatica: treatment with intradiscal and intraforaminal injections of steroid and oxygen-ozone versus steroid only. Radiology 242, no. 3 (2007): 907-913.
Ginanneschi, Federica, Carlo Cervelli, Paolo Milani, and Alessandro Rossi. Ventral and dorsal root injury after oxygen-ozone therapy for lumbar disk herniation. Surgical neurology66, no. 6 (2006): 619-620.
Han, Hyun-Jung, Joon-Young Kim, Ha-Young Jang, Bora Lee, Jung-Hee Yoon, Sang-Keun Jang, Seok Hwa Choi, and Soon-Wuk Jeong. Fluoroscopic-guided intradiscal oxygen-ozone injection therapy for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations in dogs. in vivo 21, no. 4 (2007): 609-613.
Iliakis, E., I. Petropoulos, A. Iliaki, E. Agapitos, and G. Agrogiannis. Is medical ozone safe when injected intra-articularly? Int. J. Ozone Ther 7 (2008): 7-15.
Lu, Wei, Yan-Hao Li, and Xiao-Feng He. Treatment of large lumbar disc herniation with percutaneous ozone injection via the posterior-lateral route and inner margin of the facet joint. World journal of radiology 2, no. 3 (2010): 109.
Magalhaes, Francisco N., Luciana Dotta, Andre Sasse, Manoel J. Teixeira, and Erich T. Fonoff. Ozone therapy as a treatment for low back pain secondary to herniated disc: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain Physician 15, no. 2 (2012): E115-E129.
Manoto, Sello Lebohang, Makwese Johaness Maepa, and Shirley Keolebogile Motaung. Medical ozone therapy as a potential treatment modality for regeneration of damaged articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. Saudi journal of biological sciences 25, no. 4 (2018): 672-679.
Paoloni, M., Di Sante, L., Cacchio, A., Apuzzo, D., Marotta, S., Razzano, M., ... & Santilli, V. (2009). Intramuscular oxygen-ozone therapy in the treatment of acute back pain with lumbar disc herniation: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of active and simulated lumbar paravertebral injection. Spine, 34(13), 1337-1344.
Pellicanò, G., F. Martinelli, V. Tavanti, M. Bonetti, M. Leonardi, M. Muto, C. Andreula, and N. Villari. The Italian Oxygen-Ozone Therapy Federation (FIO) study on oxygen-ozone treatment of herniated disc. International Journal of Ozone Therapy 6, no. 1 (2007): 7-15.
Ripamonti, Carla Ida, Enrico Cislaghi, Luigi Mariani, and Massimo Maniezzo. Efficacy and safety of medical ozone (O3) delivered in oil suspension applications for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with bone metastases treated with bisphosphonates: Preliminary results of a phase I–II study. Oral oncology 47, no. 3 (2011): 185-190.
Romero Valdes, A., Menendez Cepero, S., Gomez Moraleda, M., and Ley Pozo, J., 1993. Ozone therapy in the advanced stages of arteriosclerosis obliterans. Angiologia 45: 146–148.
Sardar, K., G. Das, P. Mahta, S. Mallick, and R. Hubbard. Medical ozone in herniated disc: A classical review. J Pain Relief 3, no. 3 (2014): 1000148.
Splendiani, A., M. Perri, A. Conchiglia, F. Fasano, G. Di Egidio, C. Masciocchi, and M. Gallucci. MR assessment of lumbar disk herniation treated with oxygen-ozone diskolysis: the role of DWI and related ADC versus intervertebral disk volumetric analysis for detecting treatment response. The neuroradiology journal 26, no. 3 (2013): 347-356.
Steppan, Jim, Thomas Meaders, Mario Muto, and Kieran J. Murphy. A metaanalysis of the effectiveness and safety of ozone treatments for herniated lumbar discs. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology 21, no. 4 (2010): 534-548.
Tian, J. L., J. S. Zhang, Y. Y. Xiao, J. T. Liu, B. Yang, J. K. Li, and M. Yu. Changes of CSF and spinal pathomorphology after high-concentration ozone injection into the subarachnoid space: an experimental study in pigs. American journal of neuroradiology 28, no. 6 (2007): 1051-1054.
Torri, G., A. Deela Grazia, and C. Casadei. Clinical experience in the treatment of lumbar disk disease, with a cycle of lumbar muscle injections of an oxygen+ ozone mixture. International Journal of Medicine Biology and the Environment 27, no. 2 (1999): 177-183.
Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, M. D., and Imam Khomeini Ave. The major efficient mechanisms of ozone therapy are obtained in intradiscal procedures. Pain Physician 15, no. E1007 (2012): E1007-E1010.
Oxygen-Ozone Therapy in Dentistry
Within the past few years, ozone therapy has advanced as a new method for treating caries, root canal treated teeth and bone cavitations. It has been suggested that the application of ozone to carious lesions will arrest or reverse these lesions and that the use of ozone will provide an alternative to conventional drilling and filling. It has been also shown that Ozone can be used to kill bacteria present in non-vital teeth, bone cavitations and carious lesions, painlessly and even without anesthetic.
Azarpazhooh, Amir, and Hardy Limeback. "The application of ozone in dentistry: a systematic review of literature." Journal of dentistry 36, no. 2 (2008): 104-116.
Baysan, Aylin, and Edward Lynch. "The use of ozone in dentistry and medicine." Primary Dental Care 2 (2005): 47-52.
Baysan, Aylin, and Edward Lynch. "The use of ozone in dentistry and medicine. Part 2. Ozone and root caries." Primary Dental Care 13, no. 1 (2006): 37-41.
Das, Sushma. Application of ozone therapy in dentistry. IJDA3, no. 2 (2011): 538.
Gopalakrishnan, S., and S. Parthiban. Ozone-a new revolution in dentistry. J Bio Innov 1, no. 3 (2012): 58-69.
Garg, R., and S. Tandon. "Ozone: A new face of dentistry." Int J Dent Sci 7, no. 2 (2009): 1-5.
Gupta, G., and B. Mansi. Ozone therapy in periodontics. Journal of medicine and life 5, no. 1 (2012): 59.
Gupta, Shiva, and D. Deepa. "Applications of ozone therapy in dentistry." Journal of Oral Research and Review 8, no. 2 (2016): 86.
Huth, Karin C., Franz M. Jakob, Bernd Saugel, Christian Cappello, Ekaterini Paschos, Regina Hollweck, Reinhard Hickel, and Korbinian Brand. "Effect of ozone on oral cells compared with established antimicrobials." European journal of oral sciences 114, no. 5 (2006): 435-440.
Loncar, Bozana, Marinka Mravak Stipetic, Danijela Matosevic, and Zrinka Tarle. "Ozone application in dentistry." Archives of medical research 40, no. 2 (2009): 136-137.
Moezizaden, M. "Future of dentistry, nanodentistry, ozone therapy and tissue engineering." J Dev Bio Tissue Eng 5 (2013): 1-6.
Nagayoshi, M., T. Fukuizumi, C. Kitamura, J. Yano, M. Terashita, and T. Nishihara. "Efficacy of ozone on survival and permeability of oral microorganisms." Oral microbiology and immunology 19, no. 4 (2004): 240-246.
Nogales, C. G., Ferrari, P. H., Kantorovich, E. O., & Lage-Marques, J. L. (2008). Ozone therapy in medicine and dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract, 9(4), 75-84.
Oizumi, Makoto, Tetsuya Suzuki, Mitsuharu Uchida, Junichi Furuya, and Yugo Okamoto. In vitro testing of a denture cleaning method using ozone. Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences 45, no. 2 (1998): 135-139.
Raiyani, Chirag M., Ruchi Arora, and P. Bhayya Deepak. "Ozone (Dentistry towards the greenery)–A Review." International Journal of Biomedical Research 6, no. 03 (2015): 155-9.
Saini, R. (2011). Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine, 2(2), 151.
Shehata, Aya A., Gehan M. Elba, and Khadiga Y. Kawana. "EVALUATION OF TOPICAL OZONE THERAPY ON SOCKET HEALING IN RABBITS WITH INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS." Alexandria Dental Journal 44, no. 2 (2019): 28-32.
Wilczyńska-Borawska, M., K. Leszczyńska, C. Nowosielski,and W. Stokowska. "Ozone in dentistry: microbiological effects of gas action depending on the method and the time of application using the ozonytron device. Experimental study." In Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 99-103. 2011.