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Platelet-rich plasma consists of two elements: plasma, or the liquid portion of blood, and platelets, a type of blood cell that plays an important role in healing throughout the body. Platelets are well-known for their clotting abilities, but they also contain growth factors that can trigger cell reproduction and stimulate tissue regeneration or
healing in the treated area. Platelet-rich plasma is simply blood that contains more
platelets than normal.
To create platelet-rich plasma, clinicians take a blood sample from the patient and place it into a device called a centrifuge that rapidly spins the sample, separating out the other components of the blood from the platelets and concentrating them within the plasma.
After creating platelet-rich plasma from a patient’s blood sample, that solution is injected into the target area, such as an injured knee or a tendon. In some cases, the clinician may use ultrasound to guide the injection. The idea is to increase the concentration of specific proteins or hormones, called growth factors, in a specific area to accelerate the healing process.
Studies show that the increased concentration of growth factors in platelet-rich plasma stimulates the healing process, shortening healing time for injuries, decreasing pain, and even encouraging hair growth.
PRP injections are used for a range of conditions, from musculoskeletal pain and injuries to cosmetic procedures.
The following articles elaborate on the indications, procedures, outcomes and and
benefits of PRP.
Click Here For: Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy (PRP) Article
Ahmad, Zafar, Daniel Howard, Roger A. Brooks, John Wardale, Fran Henson, Alan Getgood, and Neil Rushton. "The role of platelet rich plasma in musculoskeletal science." JRSM short reports 3, no. 6 (2012): 1-9..2011.011148
Barad, D. H., D. F. Albertini, E. Molinari, and N. Gleicher. "Preliminary report of intraovarian injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in extremely poor prognosis patients with only oocyte donation as alternative: a prospective cohort study." Human Reproduction Open 2022, no. 3 (2022): hoac027.
Beitia, Maider, Diego Delgado, Jon Mercader, Pello Sánchez, Leonor López de Dicastillo, and Mikel Sánchez. "Action of platelet-rich plasma on in vitro cellular bioactivity: more than platelets." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24, no. 6 (2023): 5367.
Boswell, Stacie G., Brian J. Cole, Emily A. Sundman, Vasili Karas, and Lisa A. Fortier. "Platelet-rich plasma: a milieu of bioactive factors." Arthroscopy: The journal of arthroscopic & related surgery 28, no. 3 (2012): 429-439.
Chalidis, B., Givissis, P., Papadopoulos, P., & Pitsilos, C. (2023). "Molecular and Biologic Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Ligament and Tendon Healing and Regeneration: A Systematic Review." International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(3), 2744.
Davis, Vicki L., Alaeddin B. Abukabda, Nicholas M. Radio, Paula A. Witt-Enderby, William P. Clafshenkel, J. Vito Cairone, and James L. Rutkowski. "Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part I: workable options for every size practice." Journal of Oral Implantology 40, no. 4 (2014): 500-510.
DelRossi, Anthony J., Aurei C. Cemaianu, Roger A. Vertrees, Charles J. Wacker, Sidney J. Fuller, Jonathan H. Cilley Jr, and William A. Baldino. "Platelet-rich plasma reduces postoperative blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass." The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 100, no. 2 (1990): 281-286.
Ferrari, M., S. Zia, M. Valbonesi, F. Henriquet, G. Venere, S. Spagnolo, M. A. Grasso, and I. Panzani. "A new technique for hemodilution, preparation of autologous platelet-rich plasma and intraoperative blood salvage in cardiac surgery." The International journal of artificial organs 10, no. 1 (1987): 47-50.
Gupta, Ashim, Madhan Jeyaraman, and Nicola Maffulli. "Common medications which should be stopped prior to platelet-rich plasma injection." Biomedicines 10, no. 9 (2022): 2134.
Halpern, Brian C., Salma Chaudhury, and Scott A. Rodeo. "The role of platelet-rich plasma in inducing musculoskeletal tissue healing." HSS Journal® 8, no. 2 (2012): 137-145.
Hall, Michael P., Phillip A. Band, Robert J. Meislin, Laith M. Jazrawi, and Dennis A. Cardone. "Platelet-rich plasma: current concepts and application in sports medicine." JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 17, no. 10 (2009): 602-608.
He, Min, Tianyi Chen, Yuhuan Lv, Peiyang Song, Bo Deng, Xuewen Guo, Shunli Rui et al. "The role of allogeneic platelet-rich plasma in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: Current perspectives and future challenges." Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 10 (2022): 993436.
Kia, Cameron, Joshua Baldino, Ryan Bell, Alim Ramji, Colin Uyeki, and Augustus Mazzocca. "Platelet-rich plasma: review of current literature on its use for tendon and ligament pathology." Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine 11 (2018): 566-572.
Li, Shangzhe, Guang Yang, Hailong Zhang, Xu Li, and Yi Lu. "A systematic review on efficacy of different types of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the management of lateral epicondylitis." Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (2022).
Lin, Keng-Yi, Poyu Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu Chen, Yi-Sheng Chan, Kin Fong Lei, and Chih-Hao Chiu. "Leukocyte-Rich Platelet-Rich Plasma Has Better Stimulating Effects on Tenocyte Proliferation Compared With Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma." Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine 10, no. 3 (2022): 23259671221084706.
Mazzotta, Alessandro, Enrico Pennello, Cesare Stagni, Nicolandrea Del Piccolo, Angelo Boffa, Annarita Cenacchi, Marina Buzzi, Giuseppe Filardo, and Dante Dallari. "Umbilical cord PRP vs. autologous PRP for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis." Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 15 (2022): 4505.
McRobb, Jonathon, Khawaja Hasan Kamil, Imran Ahmed, Fatema Dhaif, and Andrew Metcalfe. "Influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) analogues on healing and clinical outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery: a systematic review." European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology 33, no. 2 (2023): 225-253.
Mishra, Allan, James Woodall Jr, and Amy Vieira. "Treatment of tendon and muscle using platelet-rich plasma." Clinics in sports medicine 28, no. 1 (2009): 113-125.
Nguyen, Rosalyn T., Joanne Borg-Stein, and Kelly McInnis. "Applications of platelet-rich plasma in musculoskeletal and sports medicine: an evidence-based approach." PM&R 3, no. 3 (2011): 226-250.
Paoloni, Justin, Robert J. De Vos, Bruce Hamilton, George AC Murrell, and John Orchard. "Platelet-rich plasma treatment for ligament and tendon injuries." Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 21, no. 1 (2011): 37-45.
Peter, I., Kung Wu, Robert Diaz, and Joanne Borg-Stein. "Platelet-rich plasma." Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics 27, no. 4 (2016): 825-853.
Russell, Ryan P., John Apostolakos, Toshiaki Hirose, Mark P. Cote, and Augustus D. Mazzocca. "Variability of platelet-rich plasma preparations." Sports medicine and arthroscopy review 21, no. 4 (2013): 186-190.
Seckin, Serin, Hadi Ramadan, Marco Mouanness, Michelle Kohansieh, and Zaher Merhi. "Ovarian response to intraovarian platelet-rich plasma (PRP) administration: hypotheses and potential mechanisms of action." Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 39, no. 1 (2022): 37-61.
Swärd, Elin, and Maria Wilcke. "Effects of intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) injections on osteoarthritis in the thumb basal joint and scaphoidtrapeziotrapezoidal joint." Plos one 17, no. 3 (2022): e0264203.
Tremellen, Kelton, and Leanne Pacella‐Ince. "An audit of clinical outcomes following ovarian administration of platelet‐rich plasma (PRP) in women with severe diminished ovarian reserve." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 62, no. 5 (2022): 767-772.
Zhang, Joanne Y., Peter D. Fabricant, Chad R. Ishmael, Jeffrey C. Wang, Frank A. Petrigliano, and Kristofer J. Jones. "Utilization of platelet-rich plasma for musculoskeletal injuries: an analysis of current treatment trends in the United States." Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine 4, no. 12 (2016): 2325967116676241.