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Contact Regulation Thermography (CRT) is a thermodynamic diagnostic method that utilizes the physiologic behavior of the body's skin temperature when exposed to a cold stimulus in order to determine the functionality and health status of certain organs, glands and tissues. Additionally,
numerous investigators from different geographical regions that include Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and the United States have investigated the efficacy of
contact thermography, and more recently liquid crystal, contact thermography in detecting numerous pathologies. Studies investigating breast abnormalities have shown that contact thermography was effective as a diagnostic tool with high sensitivity for detecting breast
abnormalities. Breast abnormalities in breast cancer patients were associated with increases in local regional hyperthermia as related to the tumor as well as a useful adjuvant tool for diagnosing suspected breast neoplasms.

Contact Regulation Thermography has been shown to detect:

* Abnormalities of the female breast
*Peripheral vascular disease
* Musculoskeletal disorders
* Extracranial cerebral and facial vascular disease
*Abnormalities of the thyroid gland
* Various neoplastic and inflammatory conditions

Aside from CRT, modern infrared thermographic imaging systems offer high-resolution images of human body temperature, measuring the infrared heat of tissue metabolism. An infrared scanning
camera translates infrared radiation emitted from the skin surface and records them on a color monitor. This visual image graphically maps the body temperature and is referred to as a thermogram. The spectrum of colors indicates an increase or decrease in the amount of infrared radiation being emitted from the body surface.


In healthy people, there is a symmetrical skin pattern which is consistent and reproducible for any individual. Contact regulation thermography and infrared thermal imaging are vastly different diagnostic approaches, though each is based on thermodynamics.

It is important to differentiate that CRT is a functional diagnostic involving a cold challenge and as such measures the regulatory capacity of organs, glands and tissues. Whereas thermal imaging is a
static image and does not assess the regulatory capacity of the body, CRT has the potential to assess the regulatory capacity of more than 20 organs, glands and tissues when given a cold challenge.

The following are selected articles on Contact Regulation Thermography. 

Beck, A ; Klinische Bestätigung thermiecher Diagnosen. Thermodiagnostik, 2, 1987, 21-24.


Benbow SJ, Chan AW, Bowsher DR, Williams G, Macfarlane IA. The prediction of diabetic neuropathic plantar foot ulceration by liquid-crystal contact thermography. Diabetes Care 1994; 17(8):835-9.

Berz, R. ; Änderungen des thermischen Hautmusters auf einen Abkülhlungsreiz. Thermodiagnostik, 2/1987, 14-19.


Chan, Ah Wah, Ian A. MacFarlane, and David R. Bowsher. "Contact thermography of painful diabetic neuropathic foot." Diabetes Care 14, no. 10 (1991): 918-922.

David, E ; Die Physiologie der Temperaturregulation. Thermodiagnostik, 2, 1987, 6-10

Fransen, Nanette and Lens, Rob. Report of the chosen research of Nanette Fransen and Rob Lens, done in the Physiological Institute of the University Witten/Herdecke  during the months April till August 1989. 

Thermoregulation Diagnostics.

Frejaville, E., G. Pagni, E. Cacciari, M. C. Pifferi, C. Tramonti, V. Santi, C. Cesari, S. Partesotti, and C. Orlandi. "Breast contact thermography for differentiation between premature thelarche and true precocious puberty." European journal of pediatrics 147, no. 4 (1988): 389-391.


Geshelin, S. A., A. L. Noskin, and V. A. Kravchenko. "Contact thermography in the differential diagnosis of benign tumors and cancer of the breast." Vrachebnoe delo 8 (1989): 103-105.

Giansanti, Daniele, and Giovanni Maccioni. Wearable device for skin contact thermography: design, construction and testing. No. ISTISAN--08-24. Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italy), 2008.

Haga, Shunsuke, Osamu Watanabe, Tadao Shimizu, Hiroshi Imamura, Koji Kobayashi, Jun Kinoshita, Hiroshi Nagumo, and Tetsuro Kajiwara. "Relation between locoregional hyperthermic area detected by contact thermography and the maximum density of tumor stain obtained by IV-DSA in breast cancer patients." Breast Cancer 3, no. 1 (1996): 33-37.

Hardy, Paul AJ, and David R. Bowsher. "Contact thermography in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia and other facial pains." British journal of neurosurgery 3, no. 3 (1989): 399-401.

Head IF, Wang F, Elliott RL. Breast thermography is a noninvasive prognostic procedure that predicts tumor growth rate in breast cancer patients. Ann NYAcud Sci 1993;698:153-8.

Hensel,H; Die Wärmeregulation der Menschen. in: Thermographie und Thermoregulationsdiagnostik .Med-Liter. Verlagsgesellschaft mbh, Uelzen 1980.

Hoffmann, R., F. Largiader, and H. P. Brütsch. "Liquid crystal contact thermography--a new screening procedure in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis." Helvetica chirurgica acta 56, no. 1-2 (1989): 45-48.

Horzic, M., Davorka Bunoza, and K. Maric. "Contact Thermography in a study of primary healing of surgical wounds." Ostomy/wound management 42, no. 1 (1996): 36-8.

Ikeda T, Abe O, Enomoto K, Kikuchi K, Fujiwara K. [Contact thermography as a prognostic indicator of breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1989; 16(5):2103-8.

Jensen, C., L. Lomboldt Knudsen, and V. Hegedüs. "The role of contact thermography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis." European journal of radiology 3, no. 2 (1983): 99-102.

Kellner, G ; Die Pathophysiologie der Wä Thermografie und Thermoregulationsdiagnostik. med. liter.Verlagsgesellschaft mbh, tTelzen 1980.


Kjaer, L., S. Winter Christensen, A. A. Vestergaard, A. Bjerg-Nielsen, and P. Wille-Jørgensen. "Contact thermography as a screening test for deep venous thrombosis following major hip surgery." Acta Radiologica 29, no. 6 (1988): 649-652.

Kurihara, T., Y. Higashi, K. Suemasu, T. Kanoh, T. Tabei, and K. Inoue. "Usefulness of contact thermography for the evaluation of chemotherapeutic effectiveness in breast cancer." Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 20, no. 7 (1993): 915-920.

Loviagin, E. V., V. F. Mus, P. D. Litvinov, and L. A. Iakovleva. "Possibilities of contact chromatic thermography in the diagnosis of lung cancer." Meditsinskaia radiologiia 36, no. 4 (1991): 11-14.

Luis Vitetta, Marilyn Johnson, Avni Sali. Contact-Thermography: a scientific evaluation.


Odell, James. Introduction to Contact Regulation Thermography.


Pogrel, M. A., George Erbez, Robert C. Taylor, and Thomas B. Dodson. "Liquid crystal thermography as a diagnostic aid and objective monitor for TMJ dysfunction and myogenic facial pain." Journal of Craniomandibular Disorders 3, no. 2 (1989).

Rost, A. ; "Das Normthermogram”. Deutsche Gesellechaft für Thermographie e.V. 

Rost, A ; Untersuchungen über kontakt- und kontaktlose thermische Messungen. Phys. Med. u. Reh. 11/80, 21 Jhr,610-614. 

Rost, A ; Regulationsthermographie, 2.Auf 1. Leitfaden und Atlas für die tägliche Praxis. Hippokrates, Stuttgart 1987. 

Rost, J. ; EinfUhrung in die Regulationsthermographie: prakt. Anleitung u. therapeut. Konsequenzen. Hippokrates Verlag GmbH, Stuttgart 1987.


Rost, A. "What value has thermography in diagnosis?." Krankenpflege Journal 20, no. 8 (1982): 21.

Schwamm, E ; Thermoregulation und Thermodiagnostik. Phys. Med. u. Reh. 9/69, 9 Jhr, 130-138


Sforza, M., A. Ballerini, R. Russo, P. L. Carzaniga, and G. Vertemati. "Contact thermography in breast pathology. A critical review." Minerva chirurgica 46, no. 8 (1991): 375-377.

Steed, Pamela A. "The utilization of contact liquid crystal thermography in the evaluation of temporomandibular dysfunction." CRANIO® 9, no. 2 (1991): 120-128.

Stüttgen, Günter, and Jörn Eilers. "Reflex heating of the skin and telethermography." Archives of dermatological research 272, no. 3-4 (1982): 301-310.

Sterns, Ernest E., Benny Zee, Sandip SenGupta, and Fraser W. Saunders. "Thermography: its relation to pathologic characteristics, vascularity, proliferation rate, and survival of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast." Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society 77, no. 7 (1996): 1324-1328.

Usuki, H., M. Murakami, S. Komatsubara, S. Teramoto, S. Kawasaki, T. Misumi, Y. Morokoshi, M. Yamamoto, M. Ono, and K. Kawai. "A case of inflammatory breast cancer well treated with intraarterial infusion chemotherapy--evaluation of therapy by contact thermography." Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy 18, no. 7 (1991): 1191-1194.

Weber, W.H. ; Standardisierte Punkt-Thermographie. Karl F. Haug Verlag - Heidelberg 1985.

Weber, Winfried. Thermographische Funktionsanalyse: die Basis zur medizinischen Prävention-Flowwing TC. BoD–Books on Demand, 2016.


Yokoe, T., T. Ishida, T. Ogawa, Y. Iino, T. Kawai, and M. Izuo. "Role of cancer thermography for detection of breast cancer." Gan no rinsho. Japan journal of cancer clinics 36, no. 8 (1990): 885-889.

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