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The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of homeopathy vary from “superior to conventional medicine” to “comparable to conventional medicine” to “no evidence of effects beyond placebo”. Sometimes the design of the study is limited or flawed and even biased to disprove homeopathy. Prior disbelief in homeopathy by researchers is rooted in the perceived implausibility of its mechanism of action, even though recent physic studies of ultra-high dilution have shown evidence of “homeopathic potency.” Plausibility bias impedes assessment of clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific; as scientific statements must be objective, precise and reproducible. If ever there were a medical system that cried out for a careful unbiased scientific trial, it is homeopathy.


There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects and aid in numerous illnesses. Evidence from multiple different, independent laboratories and researchers demonstrate that homeopathically-prepared remedies have biologically measurable effects in in vitro and in vivo animal studies. For example, the famous controversial Benveniste paper in Nature showing ultra-dilutions of immunoglobulin E antiserum modulated basophil histamine release (Davenas et al. 1988) was promptly attacked via evaluation by a “quackbuster” and his colleagues. Since then, another published European multi-site study with improved objective technology has now demonstrated that ultra-dilutions of histamine do modulate basophil activation (Belon 2004). 


Importantly, the fundamental principles of homeopathy are that the treatment addresses the patient’s entire pattern of problems (holistically) at once in a patient-specific, but not disease-specific, manner. Homeopathic outcomes are different from those in conventional medicine; homeopaths report global and hierarchically-organized multiple, multidimensional changes at local (body part) levels. The very nature of homeopathy is inherently holistic and thus non-specific. Non-specific does not mean biologically inert, i.e., non-specificity is more than a simple “placebo” effect. To infer from the data that homeopathic remedies do not exert disease-specific effects, i.e., that they are not allopathic drugs, is consistent with the claims of homeopathic clinicians and the conceptual principles of the field, but such a conclusion only highlights the need to design clinical studies of homeopathy that reflect the philosophical underpinnings and clinical practices of homeopathy rather than those of allopathy.


The clinical evidence from numerous observational studies on hundreds to thousands of patients in different countries has consistently demonstrated that homeopathy benefits the majority of patients who receive it for a wide range of conditions and shows an excellent safety record. In addition to in vitro, in vivo and quantum physic studies of ultra-high dilution, the following include positive clinical studies of homeopathy efficacy for numerous conditions. Most trials use single remedy homeopathy, whereas a few use compound homeopathy based on homotoxicology.


Homeopathy, as a holistic medicine intervention, has important lessons to teach clinicians and researchers with regard to issues in individualized treatment, patterns of outcomes, and even the nonlinear dynamical processes of healing in the patient as a whole system. The following sampling of studies reflect several dimensions of homeopathy and add credibility to this unique, non-toxic system of medicine.

Anagnostatos, Gerasimos S. "Small water clusters (clathrates) in the preparation process of homoeopathy." Ultra high dilution: Physiology and physics (1994): 121-128. In a previous publication, a three-step hypothesis was introduced to help the comprehension of the technique followed in homeopathic preparation of remedies in the case that the dilution of the pharmaceutical substance does not reach the
molecular level of the substance, but small aggregates of molecules of the substance are first formed and then eventually diluted into the solvent. Here, this hypothesis is
extended to cover the cases where the dilution reaches the molecular level and eventually simple molecules of the substance are found among molecules of the solvent.

Anick, D. J., & Ives, J. A. (2007). "The silica hypothesis for homeopathy: physical chemistry." Homeopathy, 96(03), 189-195. The ‘silica hypothesis’ is one of several frameworks that have been put forward to explain how homeopathic remedies, which often are diluted beyond the point where any of the original substance remains, might still be clinically effective. We describe here what the silica hypothesis says. From a physical chemistry viewpoint, we explore three challenges that the hypothesis would have to meet in order to explain
homeopathy: thermodynamic stability of a large number of distinct structures, pattern initiation at low potencies, and pattern maintenance or gradual evolution at higher
potencies. We juxtapose current knowledge about silicates with some of the conventional wisdom about homeopathic remedies, to see how well the latter might be a consequence of the former. We explore variants of the hypothesis including
some speculations about mechanisms. We outline laboratory experiments that could help to decide it.


Aulagnier G. "Action d’un traitement homéopathique sur la reprise du transit post ope!ratoire." Homéopathie 1985; 6: 42–45. (Translation: In 200 patients who underwent surgery with opening of the peritoneum or thorax, the activity of homeopathic therapy on the resumption of the transit of materials and gases was experimented. For this, we randomized a population of 200 patients of both sexes, to undergo surgery surgery "digestive and heavy". This population was divided into 2 lots: one of the lots receiving Opium 9CH, 4 hours later, Raphanus 9CH, 4 hours later Arnica 9CH, while the other batch of patients received the corresponding placebo. The parameters monitored were the resumption of the transit of materials and gases. The evolution of each of the parameters was different in each of the two batches, this being statistically significant and in all cases in favor of the batches treated by the true medicinal (homeopathic) products.)

Barnes, Joanne, Karl-Ludwig Resch, and Edzard Ernst. "Homeopathy for postoperative ileus?: a meta-analysis." Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 25, no. 4 (1997): 628-633. (There is evidence that homeopathic treatment can reduce the duration of ileus after abdominal or gynecologic surgery.)

Bellavite, Paolo. "Complexity science and homeopathy: a synthetic overview." Homeopathy 92.4 (2003): 203-212.

Bellavite, Paolo, Marta Marzotto, Salvatore Chirumbolo, and Anita Conforti. "Advances in homeopathy and immunology: a review of clinical research." Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 3 (2011): 1363-1389. (Pragmatic equivalence trials suggest that, in primary care, homeopathic treatment is not inferior to conventional treatment.)

Bellavite P, Signorini, A. "The Emerging Science of Homeopathy." Complexity, Biodynamics, and Nanopharmacology. 2nd ed. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books; 2002. 408 pp.

Bellavite, Paolo, Marta Marzotto, Debora Olioso, Elisabetta Moratti, and Anita Conforti; "High-dilution effects revisited." 1. Physicochemical aspects. Homeopathy 103, no. 01 (2014): 4-21. (Several lines of evidence suggest that homeopathic high dilutions (HDs) can effectively have a pharmacological action, and so cannot be considered merely placebos. However, until now there has been no unified explanation for these observations within the dominant paradigm of the doseeresponse effect. Here the possible scenarios for the physicochemical nature of HDs are reviewed. A number of theoretical and experimental approaches, including quantum physics, conductometric and spectroscopic measurements, thermoluminescence, and model simulations investigated the peculiar features of diluted/succussed solutions. The heterogeneous composition of water could be affected by interactive phenomena such as coherence, epitaxy and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, silica and, possibly, the original material of the remedy. It is likely that the molecules of active substance act as nucleation centres, amplifying the formation of supramolecular structures and imparting order to the solvent. Three major models for how this happens are currently being investigated: the water clusters or clathrates, the coherent domains postulated by quantum electrodynamics, and the formation of nanoparticles from the original solute plus solvent components. Other theoretical approaches based on quantum entanglement and on fractal-type self-organization of water clusters are more speculative and hypothetical. The problem of the physicochemical nature of HDs is still far from to be clarified but current evidence strongly supports the notion that the structuring of
water and its solutes at the nanoscale can play a key role.)

Belon, P., Jean Cumps, M. Ennis, P. F. Mannaioni, Marcel Roberfroid, J. Sainte-Laudy, and F. A. C. Wiegant. "Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation." Inflammation research 53, no. 5 (2004): 181-188. (High dilutions of histamine (1030–1038 M) influence the activation of human basophils measured by alcian blue staining. The degree of inhibition depends on the initial level of anti-IgE induced stimulation, with the greatest inhibitory effects seen at lower levels of stimulation. In 3 different types of experiment, it has been shown that high dilutions of histamine may indeed exert an effect on basophil activity. This activity observed by staining basophils with alcian blue was confirmed by flow cytometry. Inhibition by histamine was reversed by anti-H2 and was not observed with histidine these results being in favour of the specificity of this effect. We are however unable to explain our findings and are reporting them to encourage others to investigate this phenomenon.)

Bertani S, Lussignoli S, Andrioli G et al. "Dual effects of a homeopathic mineral complex on carrageenan induced oedema in rats." British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (3):101-5. (Carrageenan oedema, a classical experimental model commonly used to test activity of anti-inflammatory drugs, was used to evaluate the therapeutic activity of a low-potency mineral complex (MC). The MC was administered in the right plantar surface of albino rats 60 min before, simultaneously and 30 min after injection of carrageenan, an irritant which causes a local, transitory increase of fluid volume. The administration of the MC 60 min before the injection of carrageenan primed the animal to enhanced inflammatory response to the irritant. The administration of MC contemporarily to carrageenan did not modify the kinetic and the extent of the oedema, while the administration of the MC 30 min after the induction of the oedema significantly reduced the early phase of the inflammatory reaction. This indicated that the therapeutic action of this MC is not due to conventional anti-inflammatory effect but to activation of endogenous regulatory mechanisms, a phenomenon which may be regarded as a simple application of the `similia rule'.)

Bornhöft, Gudrun, Ursula Wolf, Klaus von Ammon, Marco Righetti, Stefanie Maxion-Bergemann, Stephan Baumgartner, André Thurneysen, and Peter F. Matthiessen. "Effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of homeopathy in general practice-summarized health technology assessment." 

Complementary Medicine Research 13, no. 2 (2006): 19-29. (Taking internal and external validity criteria into account, effectiveness of homeopathy can be supported by clinical evidence and professional and adequate application be regarded as safe.) 

Brach, Gustavo, and Isaac Golden. "The Homoeopathic Prevention of Leptospirosis in Cuba." American Journal of Homeopathic Medicine 103, no. 3 (2010).

Abstract: The water borne parasitic disease Leptosporisis is endemic in Cuba. It peaks, especially in three Eastern provinces of the country, every hurricane season when there is often massive flooding and destruction of infrastructure. The Finlay Institute in Cuba manufactures a vaccine against the disease, but it is of moderate efficacy (around 80%) and whenever there is a change in the active strain of the disease, there is a significant lead time needed to prepare a new vaccine. In 2007, the three Eastern provinces were hit by two severe hurricanes in quick succession, and the incidence of the disease rose despite use of the vaccine. The Finlay Institute homeopathically immunized over two million people with immediate success. The program was repeated in 2008 with equal success. The available data is presented to show the impact of the interventions, and the value of homoeoprophylaxis in providing a rapid, economical, effective, and safe option to vaccination.

Chikramane, Prashant Satish, Akkihebbal K. Suresh, Jayesh Ramesh Bellare, and Shantaram Govind Kane. "Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective." Homeopathy 99, no. 04 (2010): 231-242. (Homeopathy is controversial because medicines in high potencies such as 30c and 200c involve huge dilution factors (1060 and 10400 respectively) which are many orders of magnitude greater than Avogadro’s number, so that theoretically there should be no measurable remnants of the starting materials. No hypothesis which predicts the retention of properties of starting materials has been proposed nor has any physical entity been shown to exist in these high potency medicines. Using market samples of metal-derived medicines from reputable manufacturers, we have demonstrated for the first time by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), the presence of physical entities in these extreme dilutions, in the form of nanoparticles of the starting metals and their aggregates.)


Davenas, Elisabeth, Francis Beauvais, Judith Amara, Menahem Oberbaum, Boaz Robinzon, A. Miadonnai, Alberto Tedeschi et al. "Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE." Nature 333, no. 6176 (1988): 816-818.

Ferley JP, Zmirou D, Adhemar D, Balducci F. "A controlled evaluation of a homoeopathic preparation in the treatment of influenza-like syndromes." Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 27: 329–335. (A controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a homoeopathic preparation in the treatment of influenza-like syndromes. 237 cases received the test drug and 241 were assigned to placebo. Patients recorded their rectal temperature twice a day, and the presence or absence of five cardinal symptoms (headache, stiffness, lumbar and articular pain, shivers) along with cough, coryza and fatigue. Recovery was defined as a rectal temperature less than 37.5° C and complete resolution of the five cardinal symptoms. The proportion of cases who recovered within 48 h of treatment was greater among the active drug group (homeopathic group) than among the placebo group (17.1% against 10.3%, P - 0.03).

Fisher P. An experimental double-blind clinical trial method in homoeopathy. Use of a limited range of remedies to treat fibrositis. Br Hom J 1986; 75: 142–147. (24 patients were prescribed for 3 months, according to indication, one of three homœopathic remedies (Arnica, Bryonia, Rhus tox.), each patient remaining on the same remedy throughout. They were followed monthly on the following parameters: pain, number of tender spots and sleep. An ‘indication score’ was allotted to each prescription. The results were analyzed by non-parametric statistical methods, showing that homœopathy produced a statistically significant improvement, but only when the prescribed remedy was well indicated.)


Frenkel, Moshe, and Doron Hermoni. Effects of homeopathic intervention on medication consumption in atopic and allergic disorders. Alternative therapies in health and medicine 8, no. 1 (2002): 76-79. (Fifty-six percent of patients in this study reduced their use of conventional medication following the homeopathic intervention. Patients who used conventional medications for their allergic disorders reduced their medication expense by an average of 60%, with an average savings of $24 per patient in the homeopathic intervention led to a modest but significant reduction in the use of medications commonly used to treat allergic conditions and their complications. This retrospective outcome study demonstrates cost savings for an Israeli health maintenance organization.


Gassinger CA, Wunstel G, Netter P. A controlled clinical trial for testing the efficacy of the homeopathic drug Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 in the treatment of common cold. Arznei- mittelforschung 1981; 31: 732–736. (53 outpatients suffering from common cold (flu) were randomly assigned to either a therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or the homeopathic drug Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 in a controlled clinical trial. The efficacy of the drugs was assessed on day 1, 4 and 10 of the infection by symptom check lists and physical examinations. Neither subjective complaints nor body temperature or laboratory findings showed any significant differences between groups which was taken as evidence that both drugs were equally effective.)

Gibson RG, Gibson SL, MacNeill AD, Buchanan WW. Homoeopathic therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation by double-blind clinical therapeutic trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1980; 9: 453–459. (Twenty-three patients with rheumatoid arthritis on orthodox first-line anti-inflammatory treatment plus homoeopathy were compared with a similar group of twenty-three patients on orthodox first-line treatment plus an inert preparation. There was a significant improvement in subjective pain, articular index, stiffness and grip strength in those patients receiving homoeopathic remedies whereas there was no significant change in the patients who received placebo.)

Gibson, R.G., Gibson, S.L.M., MacNeill, A.D., Gray, G.H., Dick, W.C. & Buchanan, W.W. (1978). Salicylates and homoeopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: Preliminary observations. Br. J. clin. Pharmac., 6, 391-395. (In this trial, the patients who received homoeopathic treatment did considerably better than the patients who received salicylate in the form of enteric coated aspirin.)

Golden, Isaac. "Investigación sobre la eficacia y tolerabilidad a largo plazo de la profilaxis homeopática. Parte I." Revista Médica de Homeopatía 4, no. 3 (2011): 120-124.

Abstract: After 25 years of using homeoprophylactic programs as an alternative to vaccination, we evaluated the results by surveying the parents of children included in these programs.

The long-term efficacy was 90%. Tolerability was fairly high with a percentage of adverse reactions of less than 2% and a lower incidence of chronic diseases (asthma, eczema, etc) compared with children receiving standard vaccination.

In conclusion, homeoprophylactic programs have shown high reliability with few adverse effects and no increase in diseases associated with vaccine-related hyperstimulation.

Golden, Isaac. "Eficacia y tolerabilidad a largo plazo de la profilaxis homeopática. Parte 2: Investigación mas reciente." Revista Médica de Homeopatía 5, no. 1 (2012): 34-36.

En la parte 1 de este artículo, publicada en la edición anterior de la Revista1 , se analizaron 3 tipos de evidencia que apoyan el uso de la profi laxis homeopática (PH): — Evidencia histórica. Desde 1978 hasta la actualidad, la PH se ha venido usando por el fundador y el mayor maestro de la homeopatía, que logró excelentes resultados. — Evidencia epidémica a corto plazo. La intervención de Mroninski et al es una de las estadísticamente más completas y exitosas2 . — Uso a largo plazo en situaciones endémicas. Donde la investigación de Golden desde 1986 hasta 2004 obtuvo un elevado nivel de efi cacia3 . La evidencia colectiva ha demostrado una consistencia en los resultados de alrededor del 90% de efi cacia. La PH no supone una garantía de protección frente a las enfermedades infecciosas identifi cadas, pero tampoco la vacunación, cuya efi cacia registrada comprende entre el 60 y el 99%, ni siquiera en el contagio de la enfermedad. Sin embargo hay pruebas de que la efi cacia de la PH es comparable a la de la vacunación. Existe un consenso general de que, gracias al método de preparación de los remedios homeopáticos, no hay riesgo de daño tóxico procedente de la PH. Por tanto, la PH ofrece a los padres, médicos y ministerios de sanidad oportunidades únicas para prevenir enfermedades infecciosas identifi cadas. En los últimos 5 años ha surgido una nueva investigación procedente de Cuba en la que el Instituto Finlay ha realizado intervenciones de PH masivas. Esta nueva evidencia, cuando se combina con los datos existentes, representa un caso convincente de la tolerabilidad y la efi cacia de la PH. A continuación revisaremos las intervenciones cubanas.

Goldstein, M. S., and D. Glik. Use of and satisfaction with homeopathy in a patient population. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 4, no. 2 (1998): 60-65. (This article describes a survey of new clients entering care with nine practicing classical homeopaths in the Los Angeles metropolitan area between January 1994 and July 1995. Clients sought homeopathic care for a wide array of largely chronic conditions. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, and female reproductive problems were the most common primary complaints. Most clients were highly educated but had limited knowledge about homeopathy before entering treatment. Approximately 80% reported earlier, unsuccessful attempts to get relief from mainstream care. Four months after treatment, general measures of health status showed improvement, and only 29% of participants reported no improvement for the primary complaint leading to treatment. Satisfaction with homeopathic treatment was high regardless of outcome. Three outcome measures of perceived change--overall health status, primary condition for which treatment was sought, and outlook on life--were predicted by different combinations of study variables. Homeopathy does not divert people from seeking mainstream care. The use of alternative modes of care such as homeopathy can be understood as attractive and satisfying to educated individuals with chronic problems.)


Gmunder R, Kissling R. The efficacy of homeopathy in the treatment of chronic low back pain compared to standardized physiotherapy. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 2002; 140: 503–508. (Based on these results, nothing can be said against attempting treatment of chronic low back pain by means of homeopathy.)


Hill N, Stam C, Tuinder S, van Haselen RA. A placebo controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in reducing mosquito bite induced erythema. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 49: 103–108. (Treatment of mosquito bites with the homeopathic after-bite gel will reduce the erythema compared to no treatment.)


Jacobs J, Jiminez LM, Gloyd SS, et al. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine: a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Pediatrics 1994; 93: 719–725. (The treatment group had a statistically significant (P < .05) decrease in duration of diarrhea, defined as the number of days until there were less than three unformed stools daily for 2 consecutive days. There was also a significant difference (P < .05) in the number of stools per day between the two groups after 72 hours of treatment. The statistically significant decrease in the duration of diarrhea in the treatment group suggests that homeopathic treatment might be useful in acute childhood diarrhea.)


Jacobs J, Springer DA, Crothers D. Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20: 177–183. (These results suggest that a positive treatment effect of homeopathy when compared with placebo in acute otitis media cannot be excluded and that a larger study is justified.) 

Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S, et al. Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhea: results from a clinical trial in Nepal. J Altern Complement Med 2000; 6: 131–139. (Of the 126 children initially enrolled, 116 completed treatment. The mean number of stools per day over the entire 5-day treatment period was 3.2 for the treatment group and 4.5 for the placebo group (P = 0.023). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of the duration of diarrhea, which included data from all patient visits, showed an 18.4% greater probability that a child would be free of diarrhea by day 5 under homeopathic treatment (P = 0.036).These results are consistent with the finding from the previous study that individualized homeopathic treatment decreases the duration of diarrhea and number of stools in children with acute childhood diarrhea.)

Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman. "Towards understanding molecular mechanisms of action of homeopathic drugs: an overview." Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 253 (2003): 339-345. (The homeopathic mode of treatment often encourages use of drugs at such ultra-low doses and high dilutions that even the physical existence of a single molecule of the original drug substance becomes theoretically impossible. But homeopathy has sustained for over two hundred years despite periodical challenges thrown by scientists and non-believers regarding its scientificity. There has been a spurt of research activities on homeopathy in recent years, at clinical, physical, chemical,
biological and medical levels with acceptable scientific norms and approach. While clinical effects of some homeopathic drugs could be convincingly shown, one of the greatest objections to this science lies in its inability to explain the mechanism of action of the micro doses based on scientific experimentations and proofs. Though many aspects of the mechanism of action still remain unclear, serious efforts have
now been made to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of biological responses to the potentized form of homeopathic drugs. In this communication, an overview of some interesting scientific works on homeopathy has been presented with due
emphasis on the state of information presently available on several aspects of the molecular mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic drugs.)

Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R. Laboratory research in homeopathy; "Integrative Cancer Therapies" 5, no. 4 (2006): 320-332. (Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses ultralow doses of highly diluted natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animals and is based on the principle of “like cures like.” Despite being occasionally challenged for its scientific validity and mechanism of action, homeopathy continues to enjoy the
confidence of millions of patients around the world who opt for this mode of treatment. Contrary to skeptics’ views, research on homeopathy using modern tools mostly tends to support its efficacy and advocates new ideas toward understanding its
mechanism of action. As part of a Point-Counterpoint feature, this review and its companion piece in this issue by Moffett et al (Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5:333-342) are composed of a thesis section, a response section in reaction to the companion thesis, and a rebuttal section to address issues raised in the companion response.

Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997; 350: 834–843. (The results of our meta-analysis are not compatible with the hypothesis that the clinical effects of homoeopathy are completely due to placebo.)


Long L, Ernst E. Homeopathic remedies for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Br Hom J 2001; 90: 37–43. (Two of the four included trials presented positive evidence for the effectiveness of combination homeopathic preparations in comparison with conventional medications. A third trial concluded that a single orally administered homeopathic remedy, Rhus toxicodendron, was significantly inferior to a conventional medication. A fourth trial showed that a topically applied homeopathic gel was at least as effective as a conventional non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug gel.)


Ludtke R, Wiesenauer M. A meta-analysis of homeopathic treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. Wien Med Wochenschr 1997; 147: 323–327. (This study assessed the efficacy of homeopathic prepared Galphimia glauca compared to placebo in the treatment of pollinosis. A significant superiority of Galphimia glauca over placebo is demonstrated.)


Maiwald VL, Weinfurtner T, Mau J, Connert WD. Therapy of common cold with a homeopathic combination preparation in comparison with acetylsalicylic acid. A controlled, randomized double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1988; 38: 578–582. (A clinical test was carried out on 170 West German army soldiers suffering from common cold. The test was conducted on a monocentric, randomized, non-sequential, and inter-individual basis; the research workers were kept blind on the identity of the medication. The purpose of testing was to compare the effectiveness of a combination homeopathic preparation (Gripp-Heel) with that of acetylsalicylic acid. On the 4th and 10th treatment days, no significant difference was determined with respect to changes in clinical findings, subjectively assessed complaints, or length of time the patients were unable to work. Thus, the two preparations possess comparative effectiveness in the treatment of the common cold.)


Mathie RT. Clinical outcomes research: contributions to the evidence base for homeopathy. Homeopathy 2003; 92: 56–57. 2 Paterson J. Report on the mustard gas experiments (Glasgow and London). Br Hom J 1943; 33: 1–12.

(The five clinical outcome studies evaluated each conclude in favor of the clinical effectiveness of homeopathy. They illustrate: post-treatment improvement in quality of life scores in patients with headache; better clinical improvement from acute otitis media after homeopathy compared with subsequent conventional medicine; swifter resolution of hyperactivity in children compared with historical placebo controls; homeopathy at least as clinically effective as conventional medication in a primary care setting; improved sperm count in men with infertility problems.)


Mathie, R. T. (2003). The research evidence-base for homeopathy: a fresh assessment of the literature. Homeopathy, 92(2), 84-91. (50 papers report a significant benefit of homeopathy in at least one clinical outcome measure, 41 that fail to discern any inter-group differences, and two that describe an inferior response with homeopathy. Considering the relative number of research articles on the 35 different medical conditions in which such research has been carried out, the weight of evidence currently favours a positive treatment effect in eight: childhood diarrhoea, fibrositis, hayfever, influenza, pain (miscellaneous), sideeffects of radio- or chemotherapy, sprains and upper respiratory tract infection. Based on published research to date, it seems unlikely that homeopathy is efficacious for headache, stroke or warts.)


Matusiewicz R. The effect of a homeopathic preparation on the clinical condition of patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma. Biomed Ther 1997; 15: 70–74.

Nahler G, Metelmann H, Sperber H. Treating osteoarthritis of the knee with a homeopathic preparation: results of a randomized, controlled, clinical trial in comparison to hyaluronic acid. Biomed Ther 1998; 16: 186–191.

Papp R, Schuback G, Beck E, et al. Oscillococcinum in patients with influenza-like syndromes: a placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation. Br Hom J 1998; 87: 69–76. (The clinical trial showed that treatment of influenza-like syndromes with OscillococcinumRhas a positive effect on the decline of symptoms and on the duration of the disease.)

Rao, Manju Lata, Rustum Roy, Iris R. Bell, and Richard Hoover. "The defining role of structure (including epitaxy) in the plausibility of homeopathy"  Homeopathy 96, no. 03
(2007): 175-182. (The key stumbling block to serious consideration of homeopathy is the presumed
“implausibility” of biological activity for homeopathic medicines in which the source material is diluted past Avogadro&#39;s number of molecules. Such an argument relies heavily on the assumptions of elementary chemistry (and biochemistry), in which the material composition of a solution, (dilution factors and ligand–receptor interactions),
is the essential consideration. In contrast, materials science focuses on the three-dimensional complex network
structure of the condensed phase of water itself, rather than the original solute molecules. The nanoheterogenous structure of water can be determined by interactive phenomena such as epitaxy (the transmission of structural information from the
surface of one material to another without the transfer of any matter),temperature–pressure processes during succussion, and formation of colloidal nanobubbles containing gaseous inclusions of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and
possibly the remedy source material.


Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, et al. Is evidence for homoeopathy reproducible? Lancet 1994; 344: 1601–1606. (A meta-analysis of all three trials strengthened the evidence that homoeopathy does more than placebo.)

Reilly DT, Taylor MA, McSharry C, Aitchison T. Is homoeopathy a placebo response? Controlled trial of homoeopathic potency, with pollen in hayfever as model. Lancet 1986; ii: 881–886. (The hypothesis that homoeopathic potencies are placebos was tested in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study model chosen compared the effects of a homoeopathic preparation of mixed grass pollens with placebo in 144 patients with active hayfever. The homoeopathically treated patients showed a significant reduction in patient and doctor assessed symptom scores. The significance of this response was increased when results were corrected for pollen count and the response was associated with a halving of the need for antihistamines. An initial aggravation of symptoms was noted more often in patients receiving the potency and was followed by an improvement in that group. No evidence emerged to support the idea that placebo action fully explains the clinical responses to homoeopathic drugs.)

Relton, Clare et al. Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review. Homeopathy, Volume 0 , Issue 0.

Schulte, Jurgen, and Peter Christian Endler. Update on preliminary elements of a theory of ultra-high dilutions. Homeopathy 104, no. 04 (2015): 337-342. (Although the experimental basis can still be questioned in most cases, remarkable fundamental observations have been made to explain the effects of UHDs. For some topics in question, it appears that information specific properties of the diluted substance to be transferred is stored by means electromagnetic fields. The interaction between the UHD and the organism seems to be electromagnetic in nature. The transmission of information from (bio-)molecules to the UHD is of special interest. Again, electromagnetic actions and vector potential fields appear to be implicated. Conclusion: The mechanisms of information storage and transfer in UHDs are far from fully understood, but progress has been made at experimental and theoretical levels)

Smith SA, Baker AE, Williams JH. Effective treatment of seborrheic dermatitis using a low dose, oral homeopathic medication consisting of potassium bromide, sodium bromide, nickel sulfate, and sodium chloride in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7: 59–67. (Oral therapy using a low-dose homeopathic preparation combining Potassium bromide 1X, Sodium bromide 2X, Nickel sulfate 3X, and Sodium chloride 6X, provides significant improvement in seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff after 10 weeks of dosing.)


Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellyn-Jones RH, et al. Randomized controlled trial of homoeopathy versus placebo in perennial allergic rhinitis with overview of four trial series. Br Med J 2000; 321: 471–476. (To test the hypothesis that homoeopathy is a placebo by examining its effect in patients with allergic rhinitis and so contest the evidence from three previous trials in this series. The objective results reinforce earlier evidence that homoeopathic dilutions differ from placebo.)

Traian D. Stanciulescu. Homeopathy and Biophotonics (I). Hpathy Ezine, September, 2009.

Tveiten D, Bruseth S, Borchgrevink CF, Norseth J. Effects of the homoeopathic remedy Arnica D30 on marathon runners: a randomized, double-blind study during the 1995 Oslo Marathon. Complement Ther Med 1998; 6: 71–74. (Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the Arnica group than in the placebo group immediately after the marathon (p = 0.017). Cell damage measured by enzymes was essentially the same whether the runners were treated with Arnica D30 or placebo. Conclusions: In this study Arnica D30 had a positive effect on muscle soreness after marathon running, but not on cell damage as measured by enzymes.)

van Haselen RA, Fisher PAG. A randomized controlled trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology 2000; 39: 714–719. (The homeopathic gel was at least as effective and as well tolerated as the NSAID gel. The presence of a clinically relevant difference between treatment groups cannot be excluded. The homeopathic gel supplemented by simple analgesics if required may provide a useful treatment option for patients with osteoarthritis.)


Weiser M, Gegenheimer LH, Klein P. A randomized equivalence trial comparing the efficacy and safety of Luffa comp.-Heel nasal spray with cromolyn sodium spray in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Forsch Komplemen- tarmed 1999; 6: 142–148. (The study proved that, for the treatment of hay fever, the homeopathic nasal spray is as efficient and well tolerable as the conventional therapy with cromolyn sodium.)


Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, et al. Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. Br Hom J 2001; 90: 148–153. (Homeopathic treatment was found to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of PMS in comparison to placebo. The use of symptom clusters in this trial may offer a novel approach that will facilitate clinical trials in homeopathy.)

Wiesenauer M, Gaus W. Wirksamkeitsnachweis eines Homöopathikums bei chronischer Polyarthritis - Eine randomisierte Doppelblindstudie bei niedergelassenen Ärzten. Akt Rheumatol 1991; 16; 1–9. (Six general practitioners treated 111 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with the homeopathic preparation "Rheumaselect" or placebo over 12 weeks in a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Outcome criteria were pain at night, resting, and movement, inflammatory signs, morning stiffness, fatigue, patient's assessment of pain, functional index according to Lee, and the overall assessment of the therapy by the treating physician and by the patient. A remarkable improvement of these criteria was found in both groups, but the improvement was more marked with verum than with placebo. The result is a significant efficiency of the homeopathic drug.)

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