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Mistletoe Therapy
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Attar, R., S. Tabassum, S. Fayyaz, M. S. Ahmad, D. R. Nogueira, I. Yaylim, O. Timirci-Kahraman et al. Natural products are the future of anticancer therapy: Preclinical and clinical advancements of Viscum album phytometabolites. Cellular and Molecular Biology 61, no. 6 (2015): 62-68.


Bar-Sela, Gil, Mira Wollner, Liat Hammer, Abed Agbarya, Elizabeth Dudnik, and Nissim Haim. Mistletoe as complementary treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with carboplatin-based combinations: a randomised phase II study. European Journal of Cancer 49, no. 5 (2013): 1058-1064.


Beuth J, Ko HL, Schneider H, et al. Intratumoral application of standardized mistletoe extracts down regulates tumor weight via decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and necrosis in a murine model. Anticancer Res. Nov-Dec 2006;26(6B):4451-4456.

Beuth, J., B. Schneider, and J. M. Schierholz. Impact of complementary treatment of breast cancer patients with standardized mistletoe extract during aftercare: a controlled multicenter comparative epidemiological cohort study. Anticancer research 28, no. 1B (2008): 523-527.

Bock, Paul R., Walter E. Friedel, Jürgen Hanisch, Marita Karasmann, and Berthold Schneider. Efficacy and safety of long-term complementary treatment with standardized european mistletoe extract (Viscum album L.) in addition to the conventional adjuvant oncologic therapy in patients with primary non-metastasized mammary carcinoma/results of a multicenter, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland. Arzneimittel forschung 54, no. 8 (2004): G-456.

Bock, Paul R., Walter E. Friedel, Jürgen Hanisch, Marita Karasmann, and Berthold Schneider. Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit der komplementären Langzeitbehandlung mit einem standardisierten Extrakt aus Europäischer Mistel (Viscum album L.) zusätzlich zur konventionellen adjuvanten onkologischen Therapie bei primärem, nicht metastasiertem Mammakarzinom. Arzneimittelforschung 54, no. 08 (2004): 456-466.


Bogoeva, Vanya, Ivan Ivanov, Hristina Kulina, George Russev, and Lybomira Atanasova. A novel cytokinin-binding property of mistletoe lectin I from viscum album. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 27, no. 1 (2013): 3583-3585.

Büssing A, Bischof M, Hatzmann W et al., Prevention of surgery-induced suppression of granulocyte function by intravenous application of a fermented extract from Viscum album L. in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Research C, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 4753–4757, 2005.


Büssing, A., M. Bischof, W. Hatzmann, F. Bartzsch, D. Soto-Vera, E-M. Fronk, M. Gmeindl, M. Schietzel, and G. M. Stein. Beeinflussung der Granulozytenfunktion durch einmalige perioperative Mistelextrakt-Infusion. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 36, no. 04 (2004): 148-153.


Büssing A, Tröger W, Stumpf C, Schietzel M, Local reactions to treatments with viscum album L. extracts and their association with T-lymphocyte subsets and quality of life. Anticancer Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1893–1897, 2008.

Büssing A, Bischof M, Hatzmann W, Bartsch F, Soto-Vera, D, Fronk E, Gmeindl M and Stein G. Prevention of surgery-induced suppression of granulocyte function by intravenous application of a fermented extract from Viscum album L. in breast cancer patients. Anticancer research 25, no. 6C (2005): 4753-4757.

Büssing, A., C. Stumpf, W. Tröger, and M. Schietzel. Course of mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes in cancer patients treated with Viscum album extracts. Anticancer research 27, no. 4C (2007): 2903-2910.

Eisenbraun, J., R. Scheer, M. Kröz, F. Schad, and R. Huber. Quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy and concurrent therapy with a mistletoe extract. Phytomedicine 18, no. 2-3 (2011): 151-157.

Enesel, Mircea Bogdan, Iurie Acalovschi, Vasile Grosu, Adriana Sbarcea, Catrinel Rusu, Adrian Dobre, Thomas Weiss, and Neven Zarkovic. Perioperative application of the Viscum album extract Isorel in digestive tract cancer patients. Anticancer research 25, no. 6C (2005): 4583-4590.

Friedel WE, Matthes H, Bock PR, et al. Systematic evaluation of the clinical effects of supportive mistletoe treatment within chemo- and/or radiotherapy protocols and long-term mistletoe application in nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma: multicenter, controlled, observational cohort study. J Soc Integr Oncol. Fall 2009; 7(4):137.

Gardin, Nilo Esvalter. Immunological response to mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients: a four‐case series. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives 23, no. 3 (2009): 407-411.

Grossarth-Maticek R, Kiene H, Baumgartner SM, et al. Use of Iscador, an extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album), in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study. Altern Ther Health Med. May-Jun 2001;7(3):57-66, 68-72, 74-56 passim.

Grossarth-Maticek, Ronald, and Renatus Ziegler. Prospective controlled cohort studies on long-term therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador®). Complementary Medicine Research 13, no. 5 (2006): 285-292.

Grossarth-Maticek, R., and R. Ziegler. Randomised and non-randomised prospective controlled cohort studies in matched-pair design for the long-term therapy of breast cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador): a re-analysis. European journal of medical research 11, no. 11 (2006): 485.

Grossarth-Maticek, Ronald, and Renatus Ziegler. Prospective controlled cohort studies on long-term therapy of cervical cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador®). Complementary Medicine Research 14, no. 3 (2007): 140-147.

Hajto, Tibor, Katarina Hostanska, and Hans-Joachim Gabius. Modulatory potency of the β-galactoside-specific lectin from mistletoe extract (Iscador) on the host defense system in vivo in rabbits and patients. Cancer Research 49, no. 17 (1989): 4803-4808.

Heinzerling, Lucie, Volker Von Baehr, Christa Liebenthal, RÜdiger Von Baehr, and Hans-Dieter Volk. Immunologic effector mechanisms of a standardized mistletoe extract on the function of human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Journal of clinical immunology 26, no. 4 (2006): 347-359.

Horneber MA, Bueschel G, Huber R, et al. Mistletoe therapy in oncology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(2):CD003297. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003297.pub2.

Johnson, S., Winters, N., Blanning, A., Debus, M., Faust, P., Hancock, M., & Hinderberger, P. (2021). Mistletoe and the Emerging Future of Integrative Oncology. Portal Books.

Legnani, Walter. Mistletoe in conventional oncological practice: exemplary cases. Integrative cancer therapies 7, no. 3 (2008): 162-171.

Kienle, Gunver S., Anja Glockmann, Michael Schink, and Helmut Kiene. Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research. Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research 28, no. 1 (2009): 79.

Kienle, G. S., and H. Kiene. Complementary cancer therapy: a systematic review of prospective clinical trials on anthroposophic mistletoe extracts. European journal of medical research 12, no. 3 (2007): 103.

Kienle, Gunver S., and Helmut Kiene. Influence of Viscum album L (European mistletoe) extracts on quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review of controlled clinical studies. Integrative cancer therapies 9, no. 2 (2010): 142-157.

Kim, Kab-Choong, Jeong-Hwan Yook, Jürgen Eisenbraun, Byung-Sik Kim, and Roman Huber. Quality of life, immunomodulation and safety of adjuvant mistletoe treatment in patients with gastric carcinoma–a randomized, controlled pilot study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine 12, no. 1 (2012): 172.

Kirsch, Angelika. Successful treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma with Viscum album extract (Iscador® M). The Journal of Altenative and Complementary Medicine13, no. 4 (2007): 443-446.

Mannel DN, Becker H, Gundt A, Kist A, Franz H. Induction of tumor necrosis factor expression by a lectin from Viscum album. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1991;33:177-82.

Mansky, Patrick J., Dawn B. Wallerstedt, Timothy S. Sannes, Jamie Stagl, Laura Lee Johnson, Marc R. Blackman, Jean L. Grem, Sandra M. Swain, and Brian P. Monahan. NCCAM/NCI phase 1 study of mistletoe extract and gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumors. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013).

Marvibaigi, Mohsen, Eko Supriyanto, Neda Amini, Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah, and Saravana Kumar Jaganathan. Preclinical and clinical effects of mistletoe against breast cancer. BioMed research international 2014 (2014).

Matthes, H., W. E. Friedel, P. R. Bock, and K. S. Zanker. Molecular mistletoe therapy: friend or foe in established anti-tumor protocols? A multicenter, controlled, retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study in pancreas cancer. Current Molecular Medicine 10, no. 4 (2010): 430-439.

Melzer, Jörg, and Reinhard Saller. Lebensqualität onkologischer Patienten unter supportiver Behandlung mit Viscum album (parenterale Mistelpräparate). Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin/Swiss Journal of Integrative Medicine 21, no. 3 (2009): 157-161.

Melzer J, Iten F, Hostanska K, et al. Efficacy and safety of mistletoe preparations (Viscum album) for patients with cancer diseases: A systematic review. Forsch Komplementmed. Aug 2009;16(4): 217-226. doi: 10.1159/000226249.

Orange, Maurice, Aija Lace, Maria P. Fonseca, Broder H. Von Laue, Stefan Geider, and Gunver S. Kienle. Durable regression of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma following fever-inducing mistletoe treatment: two case reports. Global advances in health and medicine 1, no. 1 (2012): 18-25.

Orhan, Didem Deliorman, Esra Küpeli, Erdem Yesilada, and Fatma Ergun. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of flavonoids isolated from Viscum album ssp. album. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 61, no. 1-2 (2006): 26-30.

Ostermann T, Raak C, Bussing A. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador): a systematic literature review. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:451. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-451.


Ramaekers, FRANS CS, M. A. R. J. A. N. Harmsma, KAREL J. Tusenius, Bert Schutte, Michael Werner, and Mac Ramos. Mistletoe extracts (Viscum album L.) Iscador® interact with the cell cycle machinery and target survival mechanisms in cancer cells. MEDICINA-BUENOS AIRES- 67 (2007): 79.

Rostock, M., R. Huber, T. Greiner, P. Fritz, R. Scheer, J. Schueler, and H. H. Fiebig. Anticancer activity of a lectin-rich mistletoe extract injected intratumorally into human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Anticancer research 25, no. 3B (2005): 1969-1975.

Semiglazov, V. F., V. V. Stepula, A. Dudov, J. Schnitker, and U. Mengs. Quality of life is improved in breast cancer patients by Standardised Mistletoe Extract PS76A2 during chemotherapy and follow-up: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial. Anticancer research 26, no. 2B (2006): 1519-1529.

Son, Gil Soo, Woo Sang Ryu, Hoon Yub Kim, Sang Uk Woo, Kyong Hwa Park, and Jeoung Won Bae. Immunologic response to mistletoe extract (Viscum album L.) after conventional treatment in patients with operable breast cancer. Journal of Breast Cancer 13, no. 1 (2010): 14-18.

Stirpe F, Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A. Action of viscumin, a toxic lectin from mistletoe, on cells in culture. J Biol Chem 1982;257(22):13271-7.

Thies, A., P. Dautel, A. Meyer, U. Pfüller, and U. Schumacher. Low-dose mistletoe lectin-I reduces melanoma growth and spread in a scid mouse xenograft model. British Journal of Cancer 98, no. 1 (2008): 106.

Toelg, Michael, Herbert Antonu, Bettina Reiss, and Mac H. Ramos. Lebensqualität von Tumorpatientinnen unter begleitender Misteltherapie. Ergebnisse einer prospektiven, nicht randomisierten, kontrollierten, offenen Studie (AWB) mit Iscador® M. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin/Swiss Journal of Integrative Medicine 17, no. 5 (2005): 294-299.

Tröger, Wilfried, Zdravko Ždrale, Nikola Stanković, and Miodrag Matijašević. Five-year follow-up of patients with early stage breast cancer after a randomized study comparing additional treatment with viscum album (L.) extract to chemotherapy alone. Breast cancer: basic and clinical research 6 (2012): BCBCR-S10558.

Tröger, Wilfried, Danijel Galun, Marcus Reif, Agnes Schumann, Nikola Stankovic, and Miroslav Milicevic. Quality of life of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer during treatment with mistletoe: a randomized controlled trial. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 111, no. 29-30 (2014): 493.

Tröger W, Galun D, Reif M, et al. Viscum album [L.] extract therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer: a randomised clinical trial on overall survival. Eur J Cancer. Dec 2013;49(18):3788-3797. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.06.043.

Werthmann, Paul Georg, Gregor Sträter, Hedda Friesland, and Gunver Sophia Kienle. Durable response of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following high-dose peri-lesional injections of Viscum album extracts–A case report. Phytomedicine 20, no. 3-4 (2013): 324-327.

Wode, Kathrin, Thomas Schneider, Ingrid Lundberg, and Gunver S. Kienle. Mistletoe treatment in cancer-related fatigue: a case report. Cases Journal 2, no. 1 (2009): 77.

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