top of page

Ginseng (Asian) (Panax ginseng)

Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been used for thousands of years and appears in the first known Chinese Materia Medica (thought to have been written during the Han Dynasty, 220 BCE). The English word “ginseng” stem from the Chinese word rénshēn. Rén means person, while shēn means plant root. Ginseng’s pronunciation comes from Cantonese “yun sum” or the Hokkien pronunciation "jîn-sim". Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant with fleshy roots and belongs to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae. The genus Panax derives its name from the Greek words pan (all) and akos (healing).
There are a total of 13 species that grow widely in Asia, North America and Europe. Asian ginseng root is native to the northern mountainous regions of Korea, China, and parts of the Russian Federation. Cultivation of Panax ginseng in Korea started around 11 B.C. by transplantation of wild ginseng. Panax ginseng cultivated in Korea (Korean ginseng) is harvested after 4-6 years of cultivation, and it is classified into three types depending on how it is processed: (a) fresh ginseng (less than 4 yrs. old; can be consumed in its fresh state); (b) white Ginseng (4-6 yrs. old; dried after peeling); and (c) red ginseng (harvested when 6 yrs. old, and then steamed and dried) is an herb native to East Asia and Russia.
Panax ginseng should not be confused with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) or Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), which have different medicinal properties. It should also not be confused with Panax notoginseng which also has different properties and is a key ingredient in the TCM formula Yunnan baiyao.

Ginseng (Asian) (Panax ginseng)


Panax ginseng It is also cultivated for its medicinal properties and the root is widely used as a “Yang” tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. Patients take ginseng to improve athletic performance, strength, and stamina, and as an immunostimulant. Some use it to treat diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS, and a variety of other conditions. Ginsenosides, the saponin glycosides, are thought responsible for medicinal effects of P. ginseng. They have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the CNS, alter cardiovascular tone, and increase humoral and cellular-dependent immunity.


Approximately 200 substances have been isolated from Asian ginseng thus far. Recent phytochemistry and pharmacological studies have discovered a variety of potent components in all parts of the ginseng plant including ginsenosides, alkaloids, phenolics, phytosterol, carbohydrates, polypeptides, ginseng oils, amino acids, nitrogenous substances, vitamins, minerals, and certain enzymes. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive metabolites. There is a total of 38 ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. Ginsenosides are triterpene saponins. Most consist of a dammarane skeleton (17 carbons in a four-ring structure) with different sugar groups (e.g., glucose, rhamnose, xylose and arabinose) connected to the C-3 and C-20 positions.
So far, more than 70 ginsenosides have been separated from the three main kinds of ginseng. Among them, ginsenosides Rbl, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rgl, Rg2, and Re are the major constituents of white and red ginseng, while ginsenosides Rg3, Rg5, and Rg6 are unique to red ginseng. Some rare ginsenosides, like the ocotillol saponin F11 (24-R-pseudoginsenoside) and the pentacyclic oleanane saponin Ro (3,28-O-bisdesmoside) have also been isolated and identified. The quality and composition of ginsenosides in the ginseng plants are influenced by several factors including the species, age, part of the plant, cultivation method, harvesting season and storage method. Using ginsenoside Rf as example, Rf is exclusive to Asian ginseng whereas F11 is unique to American ginseng. Thus, the Rf/F11 ratio is applied as a phytochemical label to differentiate American from Asian ginseng. Many reports indicate that ginsenoside metabolites show better biological effects than ginsenosides. For example, Rh2 and PD, metabolites of Rg3, have more potent anti-tumor activities than ginsenoside Rg3. Unlike Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rg1 and Re, compound K, PT and PD, the intestinal metabolites of PPTs and PPDs, have inhibitory effects like that of the human liver enzyme cytochrome P450 inhibitory effects.

Clinical Studies

Increasing Longevity. Historically, ginseng has been thought to prolong lifespan. Recently, several studies have shown that the components of ginseng can prolong the life span of experimental models such as Drosophila and C.elegans. While ginseng does not significantly prolong the lifespan of aging mice, it has been shown to stabilize mice’s behavior by antagonizing stress.
Increase in oxygen-derived free radicals is closely related to the aging process. Reactive oxygen species are produced by intracellular molecular pathways located mainly in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Asian ginseng has been shown to decreases lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress in rats. Ramesh T et. al. showed that aged rats fed with a Korean red ginseng water extract diet exhibited much less oxidative damage. Ginseng’s antioxidant effects have also been clinically proven. Kim HG et. al. demonstrated in a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, that administration of Korean ginseng led to a significant decrease in the levels of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), while potentiating the total glutathione content and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity.
Cardiovascular Health. Aging is also associated with various, complicated and changes in cardiovascular structure and function. The heart becomes slightly hypertrophic and has a dampened response to sympathetic stimuli, including increase in heart rate and myocardial contractility. The aorta and central elastic arteries become dilated and stiff, exhibiting enhanced pulse wave velocity, endothelial dysfunction and biochemical transformation that resembles early atherosclerosis. To compensate for the decrease in arterial compliance and increase in peripheral resistance, the heart must pump with greater force. The myocardium responds in much the same way as other muscles do after exposure to increased load - enlargement and hypertrophy that result in a gradual increase in cardiac weight There is a gradual decrease in cardiac myocytes, while remaining myocytes become hypertrophic, and the myocardium shows increased levels of collagen. Yuan SM et. al. has shown that Asian ginseng to be cardioprotective through its anti-oxidative, anti-arrhythmic, calcium channel-antagonistic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.
Another major cardiovascular effect of ginseng is endothelial regulation, which plays an important in role in the alteration of blood vessels with age. The endothelium is the innermost layer of blood vessels that comes into direct contact with the blood. It is composed of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells, which are regular and smooth in children and young adults, offering minimal resistance to blood flow. With age, the endothelial layer starts to have atypically shaped cells and becomes thickened due to smooth muscle fibers that migrate from the tunica media. This thickening not only contributes to a reduction in arterial elasticity and compliance, but also the lumen size, further increasing resistance to blood flow. A clinical trial by Jovanovski E et. all demonstrates that Korean red ginseng and its ginsenosides significantly improved flow mediated vasodilatation post treatment.
Nervous System and motor function. There is a progressive loss of neural tissue with age, usually reflected by a gradual decline in cognitive function. With age, cerebral blood flow decreases by around 20%. There is also an age-related decline in the synthesis of many neurotransmitters and their receptors. These include the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenalin), dopamine and serotonin. These reductions can slow reaction time, impair information processing and, sometimes, increase the risk of depression. Neurodegenerative disorders occur when cells fail to react to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic, and ionic stress, consequently resulting in the accumulation of damaged proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cell membranes. Ginseng has been commonly applied and studied for its enhancement of cognition enhancing and stress reduction. The underlying molecular mechanisms of ginseng’s effects on the brain have been widely studied. Ong WY. et. al. found Asian ginseng beneficial effects on cognition to involve monoamine transmission, glutamatergic transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels.
Immunity. As the adaptability of the immune system declines accordingly with age, it is less able to respond properly to invasion of foreign agent. Such changes in defenses result in immune vulnerability. Both Korean and American ginseng have been reported to have immune-regulatory properties. Several studies suggest Asian ginseng may enhance immune functioning in various populations. Cho YJ et. al. in a clinical trial showed Y-75 (Ginsan), an acidic polysaccharide extracted from Korean Panax ginseng, to be an immunomodulator that significantly increased NK cell cytotoxic activity and enhanced phagocytic activity of peripheral blood cells as well as serum TNF-α levels.
Anti-Cancer properties. Ginseng has also been investigated for potential anticancer properties. Ginsenosides exhibit antiproliferative effects in vitro. Epidemiological data in breast cancer patients show improved survival and quality of life with ginseng use, and reduced risk of endometrial cancer in breast cancer survivors. In addition, two case-controlled studies indicate a positive association between consumption and reduction in the incidence of all cancers. Small, randomized studies suggest safety and effectiveness of ginseng for reducing genotoxicity and improving quality of life in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

Biomechanical Mechanism

Ginseng and its components, especially ginsenosides, is not only effective in antiaging, but also beneficial in aging-related neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. In senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice model, 3 months administration with ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced the contents of soluble Aβ1-40 in the hippocampus and decreased hippocampal PKA RIIα (isoform IIα of the regulatory subunit of PKA) levels. Consequently, learning and memory improvement was evident, suggesting long-term application of ginsenoside Rg1 may postpone cognitive decline via increasing Aβ generation, PKA/CREB activity, as well as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in the brain.
Animal studies suggest ginsenosides prolong drug-induced sleeping time in mice and exhibit additional depressant effects on the CNS. In addition, the ginsenoside Rb1 improves acetylcholine release and enhances postsynaptic uptake of choline. In other animal studies, ginseng saponins lowered total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Ginseng may improve nitric oxide synthesis in endothelium of the heart, lung, kidneys, and in the corpus cavernosum.
In humans, oral intake of ginseng reduced post-exercise muscle injury and inflammation marked by reduced creatine kinase, beta-glucuronidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Anticancer activity has been observed in vitro with several ginsenosides. Differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic cells was induced in ginsenosides Rh2- and Rh3-treated cells. Rg3 exerted effects in part by blocking the nuclear translocation of the protein ß-catenin in colon cancer cells, most of which turned cancerous via activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Rp1 reduced breast cancer cell proliferation by decreasing stability of the insulin like growth factor 1 receptor protein in breast cancer cells.


Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol 1999;58:1685-93.
Baranov AI. Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1982;6:339-53.
Cabral de Oliveira AC, et al. Protective effects of Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2001;130:369-77.
Cheng, Yong, Li‐hong SHEN, and Jun‐tian ZHANG. "Anti‐amnestic and anti‐aging effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and its mechanism of action." ACTA pharmacologica sinica 26, no. 2 (2005): 143-149. 143.MDI (
Cho, Young-Jin, Hyeog-Jin Son, and Kyung-Soo Kim. "A 14-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ginseng polysaccharide (Y-75)." Journal of Translational Medicine 12, no. 1 (2014): 1-7. A 14-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ginseng polysaccharide (Y-75) | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text (
CHOI, Kwang‐tae. "Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal components of Korean Panax ginseng CA Meyer." Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 29, no. 9 (2008): 1109-1118. 1109-1118 9954.indd (
Chung YS, Lee IO, Lee JY, et al. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Menopausal Symptoms in Premenopausal Women After Gynecologic Cancer Surgery: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial. J Altern Complement Med. Jan 2021;27(1):66-72.
Cui Y, Shu XO, Gao YT, et al. Association of ginseng use with survival and quality of life among breast cancer patients. Am J Epidemiol 2006;163:645-53.
D'angelo, L., R. Grimaldi, M. Caravaggi, M. Marcoli, E. Perucca, S. Lecchini, G. M. Frigo, and A. Crema. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on the effect of a standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers." Journal of ethnopharmacology 16, no. 1 (1986): 15-22. 0378-8741_2886_2990063-220160707-3508-1jpdzwg-with-cover-page-v2.pdf (
de Andrade E, de Mesquita AA, Claro Jde A, et al. Study of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl. Mar 2007;9(2):241-244.
De Oliveira, Antonio C. Cabral, Andrea C. Perez, Gracia Merino, Julio G. Prieto, and Ana I. Alvarez. "Protective effects of Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 130, no. 3 (2001): 369-377. s1532-0456_2801_2900262-920160522-1865-kx0nlo-with-cover-page-v2.pdf (
Doh, Kyoung Chan, Sun Woo Lim, Shang Guo Piao, Long Jin, Seong Beom Heo, Yu Fen Zheng, Soo Kyung Bae et al. "Ginseng treatment attenuates chronic cyclosporine nephropathy via reducing oxidative stress in an experimental mouse model." American journal of nephrology 37, no. 5 (2013): 421-433. Ginseng Treatment Attenuates Chronic Cyclosporine Nephropathy via Reducing Oxidative Stress in an Experimental Mouse Model - Abstract - American Journal of Nephrology 2013, Vol. 37, No. 5 - Karger Publishers
He BC, Gao JL, Luo X, et al. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits colorectal tumor growth through the down-regulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Int J Oncol. 2011 Feb;38(2):437-45.
Hou, Joseph P. "The chemical constituents of ginseng plants." The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 5, no. 02 (1977): 123-145.
Inoue M, Wu CZ, Dou DQ, et al. Lipoprotein lipase activation by red ginseng saponins in hyperlipidemia model animals. Phytomedicine. 1999 Oct;6(4):257-65.
Jiao, Lili, Bo Li, Mingzhu Wang, Zhen Liu, Xiaoyu Zhang, and Shuying Liu. "Antioxidant activities of the oligosaccharides from the roots, flowers and leaves of Panax ginseng CA Meyer." Carbohydrate Polymers 106 (2014): 293-298. Antioxidant activities of the oligosaccharides from the roots, flowers and leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer - ScienceDirect
Jovanovski, Elena, Alexandra Jenkins, Andre G. Dias, Valentina Peeva, John Sievenpiper, John Thor Arnason, Dario Rahelic, Robert G. Josse, and Vladimir Vuksan. "Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Mayer) and its isolated ginsenosides and polysaccharides on arterial stiffness in healthy individuals." American journal of hypertension 23, no. 5 (2010): 469-472. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and Its Isolated Ginsenosides and Polysaccharides on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Individuals | American Journal of Hypertension | Oxford Academic (
Jovanovski, Elena, Valentina Peeva, John L. Sievenpiper, Alexandra L. Jenkins, Leanne Desouza, Dario Rahelic, Mi‐Kyung Sung, and Vladimir Vuksan. "Modulation of endothelial function by Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) and its components in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial." Cardiovascular Therapeutics 32, no. 4 (2014): 163-169. Modulation of Endothelial Function by Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and its Components in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Jovanovski - 2014 - Cardiovascular Therapeutics - Wiley Online Library
Jung, Hyun Lyung, Hye Eun Kwak, Sung Soo Kim, Young Chan Kim, Chong Do Lee, Heidi K. Byurn, and Ho Youl Kang. "Effects of Panax ginseng supplementation on muscle damage and inflammation after uphill treadmill running in humans." The american journal of chinese medicine 39, no. 03 (2011): 441-450. Effects of Panax ginseng Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Inflammation after Uphill Treadmill Running in Humans | The American Journal of Chinese Medicine (
Kang JH, Song KH, Woo JK, et al. Ginsenoside Rp1 from Panax ginseng Exhibits Anti-cancer Activity by Down-regulation of the IGF-1R/Akt Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011 Sep;66(3):298-305.
Kim, Chun-Ki, Dong Hui Cho, Kyu-Sun Lee, Dong-Keon Lee, Chan-Woong Park, Wan Gi Kim, Sang Jun Lee et al. "Ginseng berry extract prevents atherogenesis via anti-inflammatory action by upregulating phase II gene expression." Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine 2012 (2012). Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression (
Kim, Dong-Hyun. "Chemical diversity of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquifolium, and Panax notoginseng." Journal of ginseng research 36, no. 1 (2012): 1. Chemical Diversity of Panax ginseng, Panax quinquifolium, and Panax notoginseng (
Kim HG, Cho JH, Yoo SR, et al. Antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 17;8(4):e61271.
Kim, Hyeong-Geug, Sa-Ra Yoo, Hye-Jung Park, Nam-Hun Lee, Jang-Woo Shin, Rekha Sathyanath, Jung-Hyo Cho, and Chang-Gue Son. "Antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng CA Meyer in healthy subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial." Food and Chemical Toxicology 49, no. 9 (2011): 2229-2235. Antioxidant Effect of Panax Ginseng C.A.... - 스콜라(학지사,교보문고) (
Kim HS, Kim MK, Lee M, Kwon BS, Suh DH, Song YS. Effect of Red Ginseng on Genotoxicity and Health-Related Quality of Life after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2017 Jul 19;9(7). pii: E772.
Kim IK, Lee KY, Kang J, et al. Immune-modulating Effect of Korean Red Ginseng by Balancing the Ratio of Peripheral T Lymphocytes in Bile Duct or Pancreatic Cancer Patients With Adjuvant Chemotherapy. In Vivo. May-Jun 2021;35(3):1895-1900.
Kim, Man Su. "Korean red ginseng tonic extends lifespan in D. melanogaster." Biomolecules & Therapeutics 21, no. 3 (2013): 241. Korean Red Ginseng Tonic Extends Lifespan in D. melanogaster (
Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, et al. Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2012 Apr;19(4):461-6.
Kim, Yu-Jin, Dabing Zhang, and Deok-Chun Yang. "Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of ginsenosides." Biotechnology advances 33, no. 6 (2015): 717-735. Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of ginsenosides - PubMed (
Kim, Man Su. "Korean red ginseng tonic extends lifespan in D. melanogaster." Biomolecules & Therapeutics 21, no. 3 (2013): 241.
Lee HW, Lim HJ, Jun JH, Choi J, Lee MS. Ginseng for Treating Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017;15(6):549-556.
Lee J, Lee E, Kim D, Lee J, Yoo J, Koh B.Studies on absorption, distribution and metabolism of ginseng in humans after oral administration. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Feb 25;122(1):143-8.
Lee, Jin, Joon-Yong Cho, and Won-Kyu Kim. "Anti-inflammation effect of Exercise and Korean red ginseng in aging model rats with diet-induced atherosclerosis." Nutrition research and practice 8, no. 3 (2014): 284-291. KoreaMed Synapse
Lee, Joon-Hee, Sun-Hye Choi, Oh-Seung Kwon, Tae-Joon Shin, Jun-Ho Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, In-Soo Yoon et al. "Effects of ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans." Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30, no. 11 (2007): 2126-2134. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30(11) 2126—2134 (2007) (
Lee, Yeonju, and Seikwan Oh. "Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice." Journal of ginseng research 39, no. 3 (2015): 250-256. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice - ScienceDirect
Lin, Jia-Wei, Yih-Giun Cherng, Li-Jen Chen, Ho-Shan Niu, Chen Kuei Chang, and Chiang-Shan Niu. "Ginseng is useful to enhance cardiac contractility in animals." BioMed Research International 2014 (2014). Ginseng Is Useful to Enhance Cardiac Contractility in Animals (
Liu, Junda, Shu Wang, Hongtao Liu, Liping Yang, and Guozhu Nan. "Stimulatory effect of saponin from Panax ginseng on immune function of lymphocytes in the elderly." Mechanisms of ageing and development 83, no. 1 (1995): 43-53. Stimulatory effect of saponin from Panax ginseng on immune function of lymphocytes in the elderly - ScienceDirect
Lu, Jian-Ming, Qizhi Yao, and Changyi Chen. "Ginseng compounds: an update on their molecular mechanisms and medical applications." Current vascular pharmacology 7, no. 3 (2009): 293-302. Ginseng Compounds: An Update on Their Molecular Mechanisms and Medical Applications (
Ma SW, Benzie IF, Chu TT, et al. Effect of Panax ginseng supplementation on biomarkers of glucose tolerance, antioxidant status and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic subjects: results of a placebo-controlled human intervention trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Nov;10(11):1125-7.
MATSUURA, HIROMICHI, RYOJI KASAI, OSAMU TANAKA, YUHICHIRO SARUWATARI, KAZUO KUNIHIRO, and TOHRU FUWA. "Further studies on dammarane-saponins of ginseng roots." Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin 32, no. 3 (1984): 1188-1192. _pdf (
Nam, Ki-Yeul. "The comparative understanding between red ginseng and white ginsengs, processed ginsengs (Panax ginseng CA Meyer)." Journal of Ginseng Research 29, no. 1 (2005): 1-18. JAKO200532217879809.pdf (
Ni, Na, Qiang Liu, Huixia Ren, Di Wu, Chuanming Luo, Peng Li, Jian-Bo Wan, and Huanxing Su. "Ginsenoside Rb1 protects rat neural progenitor cells against oxidative injury." Molecules 19, no. 3 (2014): 3012-3024. Molecules | Free Full-Text | Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Rat Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury | HTML (
Ong, Wei-Yi, Tahira Farooqui, Hwee-Ling Koh, Akhlaq A. Farooqui, and Eng-Ang Ling. "Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders." Frontiers in aging neuroscience 7 (2015): 129. Frontiers | Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders | Aging Neuroscience (
Park KS, Park KI, Kim JW, Yun YJ, Kim SH, Lee CH, Park JW, Lee JM. Efficacy and safety of Korean red ginseng for cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Dec 2;158 Pt A:25-32.
Petkov, V. D., and A. H. Mosharrof. "Age‐and individual‐related specificities in the effects of standardized ginseng extract on learning and memory (experiments on rats)." Phytotherapy Research 1, no. 2 (1987): 80-84. Age‐ and individual‐related specificities in the effects of standardized ginseng extract on learning and memory (experiments on rats) - Petkov - 1987 - Phytotherapy Research - Wiley Online Library
Qian, Yi-Hua, Hua Han, Xiao-Dan Hu, and Li-Li Shi. "Protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on β-amyloid protein (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons." Neurological Research 31, no. 7 (2009): 663-667. Protective_effect_of_ginsenoside_Rb1_on_20160311-4679-10pcxub-libre.pdf (
Ramesh, Thiyagarajan, Sung-Won Kim, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Sang-Hyun Sohn, Sung-Kwang Yoo, and Si-Kwan Kim. "Panax ginseng reduces oxidative stress and restores antioxidant capacity in aged rats." Nutrition research 32, no. 9 (2012): 718-726. Panax ginseng reduces oxidative stress and restores antioxidant capacity in aged rats - ScienceDirect
Ramesh, Thiyagarajan, Sung-Won Kim, Jong-Hwan Sung, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Sang-Hyon Sohn, Sung-Kwang Yoo, and Si-Kwan Kim. "Effect of fermented Panax ginseng extract (GINST) on oxidative stress and antioxidant activities in major organs of aged rats." Experimental Gerontology 47, no. 1 (2012): 77-84. Effect of fermented Panax ginseng extract (GINST) on oxidative stress and antioxidant activities in major organs of aged rats - ScienceDirect
Ru, Wenwen, Dongliang Wang, Yunpeng Xu, Xianxian He, Yang-En Sun, Liyan Qian, Xiangshan Zhou, and Yufeng Qin. "Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Panax ginseng (CA Mey.)." Drug discoveries & therapeutics 9, no. 1 (2015): 23-32. 003_DDT-15-01004-RV proof_23-32.indd (
SANADA, SYUICHI, NORIKO KONDO, JUNZO SHOJI, OSAMU TANAKA, and SHOJI SHIBATA. "Studies on the saponins of ginseng. I. Structures of ginsenoside-Ro,-Rb1,-Rb2,-Rc and-Rd." Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 22, no. 2 (1974): 421-428. _pdf (
Seo, Su-Jeong, Jae Youl Cho, Yeon Ho Jeong, and Yong-Soon Choi. "Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on liver damage induced by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats." Journal of ginseng research 37, no. 2 (2013): 194. Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on liver damage induced by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats (
Shergis, Johannah L., Anthony L. Zhang, Wenyu Zhou, and Charlie C. Xue. "Panax ginseng in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review." Phytotherapy Research 27, no. 7 (2013): 949-965. Panax ginseng in Randomised Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review - Shergis - 2013 - Phytotherapy Research - Wiley Online Library
Shin, H., H. Jeong, S. Hong, J. Um, T. Shin, S. Kwon, S. Jee et al. "The effect of Panax ginseng on forced immobility time & immune function in mice." Indian Journal of Medical Research 124, no. 2 (2006): 199. final (
Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H. The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: A review of human and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:565-76.
Tanaka, Osamu, Eyong-Chae Han, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Hiromichi MATSUURA, Toshiyuki MURAKAMI, Toshio TANIYAMA, and Masayuki YOSHIKAWA. "Saponins of plants of Panax species collected in Central Nepal, and their chemotaxonomical significance. III." Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin 48, no. 6 (2000): 889-892. _pdf (
Voces, J., A. C. Cabral de Oliveira, Julio Gabriel Prieto, Ludivina Vila, Andrea de Castro Perez, Igor Dimitri Gama Duarte, and Ana Izabel Alvarez. "Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats." Brazilian journal of medical and biological research 37, no. 12 (2004): 1863-1871. 5448 (
Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:567-75.
Wang, Bing, Guodong Feng, Chi Tang, Li Wang, Haoran Cheng, Yunxia Zhang, Jing Ma, Ming Shi, and Gang Zhao. "Ginsenoside Rd maintains adult neural stem cell proliferation during lead-impaired neurogenesis." Neurological sciences 34, no. 7 (2013): 1181-1188. Ginsenoside_Rd_maintains_adult_neural_st20160123-30743-11sgygo-libre.pdf (
Watanabe, Hiroshi, Hiroyuki Ohta, Lisa Imamura, Wataru Asakura, Yoshinori Matoba, and Kinzo Matsumoto. "Effect of Panax ginseng on age-related changes in the spontaneous motor activity and dopaminergic nervous system in the rat." The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 55, no. 1 (1991): 51-56. _pdf (
Wu, Yan, Xiangru Lu, Fu-Li Xiang, Edmund MK Lui, and Qingping Feng. "North American ginseng protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase." Pharmacological Research 64, no. 3 (2011): 195-202. North American ginseng protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (
Xu, Kangning, Yufen Zhang, Yan Wang, Peng Ling, Xin Xie, Chenyao Jiang, Zhizhen Zhang, and Xiao-Yuan Lian. "Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration." PLoS One 9, no. 6 (2014): e101077. Ginseng Rb Fraction Protects Glia, Neurons and Cognitive Function in a Rat Model of Neurodegeneration (
Yang, Lumeng, Jing Zhang, Kunmu Zheng, Hui Shen, and Xiaochun Chen. "Long-term ginsenoside Rg1 supplementation improves age-related cognitive decline by promoting synaptic plasticity associated protein expression in C57BL/6J mice." Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 69, no. 3 (2014): 282-294. Long-term Ginsenoside Rg1 Supplementation Improves Age-Related Cognitive Decline by Promoting Synaptic Plasticity Associated Protein Expression in C57BL/6J Mice | The Journals of Gerontology: Series A | Oxford Academic (
Yennurajalingam S, Tannir NM, Williams JL, et al. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Panax Ginseng for Cancer-Related Fatigue in Patients With Advanced Cancer.J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2017 Sep;15(9):1111-1120.
Yu, Zhuo-ping, Dong-dong Xu, Lai-feng Lu, Xiao-dong Zheng, and Wei Chen. "Immunomodulatory effect of a formula developed from American ginseng and Chinese jujube extracts in mice." Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B 17, no. 2 (2016): 147-157. Immunomodulatory effect of a formula developed from American ginseng and Chinese jujube extracts in mice | SpringerLink
Yuan, Shi-Min. "Potential cardioprotective effects of Ginseng preparations." Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 28, no. 3 (2015). EBSCOhost | 102823108 | Potential cardioprotective effects of Ginseng preparations.
Yun TK, Choi SY. Non-organ specific cancer prevention of ginseng: A prospective study in Korea. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:359-64.
Yun, Taik Koo. "Brief introduction of Panax ginseng CA Meyer." Journal of Korean medical science 16, no. Suppl (2001): S3-S5. jkms-16-s3.pdf (
Zhong, Yong-Mei, Hisao Nishijo, Teruko Uwano, Ryoi Tamura, Kazuko Kawanishi, and Taketoshi Ono. "Red ginseng ameliorated place navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions and aged rats." Physiology & behavior 69, no. 4-5 (2000): 511-525. Red ginseng ameliorated place navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions and aged rats - ScienceDirect

bottom of page