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The term electromagnetic smog refers to all artificially generated (anthropogenic) electromagnetic fields in the environment and the resulting permanent exposure of people and the environment to them. Electromagnetic smog is classified as non-ionizing radiation. This means that the electromagnetic waves unlike ionizing radiation such as radioactivity, do not produce the energy required to remove electrons from atoms or molecules. Non-ionizing radiation is sub-divided as low-frequency and high-frequency electromagnetic fields.

High-frequency radiation fields created by cellular and cordless phones, cellular phone towers, Wi-Fi, and microwaves are the most damaging. But low frequency electromagnetic smog can also be harmful when we are exposed to it consistently. Due to the exponential increase in the use of wireless personal communication devices (e.g., mobile or cordless phones and Wi-Fi or Bluetooth-enabled devices) and the infrastructure facilitating them, levels of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation have increased from extremely low natural levels by about 1018 times. Levels are now exponentially surging even more as technologies like 5G add millions of additional radiofrequency transmitters around us.

Security solutions for private households and businesses also contribute to an increase in electromagnetic smog. Networked and remotely controllable devices and installations are designed to provide more security and efficient energy use and consequently improve the quality of homes and life in general. However, this technological convenience leads to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation. The trend of increased exposure to electromagnetic smog is even rising in cars as well. In addition to radiation from Bluetooth, GPS, seat heating and the mobile data of smartphones, the future use of electric cars will further increase passenger exposure because of the electric engine and its battery.

Cordless phones and smartphones have long become part of everyday life. Many children and teenagers use smartphones, tablets and laptops all day, and the latest devices are at the top of their wish lists. In order to ensure seamless accessibility, more and more mobile phone towers are being built and 5G is spreading. Mobile phones, antennae of mobile towers, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, tabs and other such wireless equipment  work on frequencies ranging from 700 Megahertz (MHz) to 2.8 Gigahertz (GHz) and the proposed new arrival of 5G is supposed to work on a frequency of 30 GHz to 300 GHz. All these very high frequencies cause multiple resonances at a cellular level, causing disturbance in cell-to-cell communication. This radiation is silent and invisible, but cells are adversely affected by it.

According to recent estimates, more than 7 billion cellphones and smartphones are currently in use worldwide, and the numbers and cell towers continue to increase. In addition, there are Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ultrawideband. Never have so many people (especially children) been exposed to radiofrequency radiation, at such intensities with such proximity to the head. Most modern cellular systems operate in a pulsating mode in which the data is accumulated and transmitted in short pulses. Such modulated radiofrequency radiation at low average power has been reported to have detrimental effects on the central nervous system. Because of the widespread use of wireless technology, even a small risk increase would have serious public health consequences.

Humans have an electromagnetic field with a power of approximately one hundred millivolts. Since we live in an artificially created field significantly higher than this, over time our bodies become irritated and distressed and constantly compensate for the effects of this greater electromagnetic field. In order to compensate, our bodies lose energy (electrons) constantly. The strength of our body current is described as emitting four Pico Amps. In contrast, the current surging through mobile/cellular and cordless phones is 0.2 Amps. This is fifty billion times stronger. If you consider that the human body performs one-quadrillion electrical connections every second, it becomes clear how much can go wrong.

Electromagnetic radiation can interfere with numerous cellular regulatory mechanisms, as cells and the fluids around them are composed of water. It has been widely claimed that radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, being non-ionizing radiation, does not possess enough photon energy to cause DNA damage. This has now been proven false experimentally. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation causes DNA damage apparently through oxidative stress, like near-UV radiation, which was also long thought to be harmless. Additionally, evidence of its effects on the CNS, including altered neurodevelopment and increased risk of some neurodegenerative diseases, is a major concern considering the steady increase in their incidence. Evidence exists for an association between neurodevelopmental or behavioral disorders in children and exposure to wireless devices, and experimental evidence shows that prenatal exposure could cause structural and functional changes in the brain associated with ADHD-like behavior. 

Damage goes well beyond humans, as there is growing evidence of harmful effects to both plant and animal life.  For example, the reported global reduction in bees and other insects is plausibly linked to the increased radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in the environment. Honeybees are among the species that use magnetoreception, which is sensitive to anthropogenic electromagnetic fields, for navigation.

Studies have shown exposure to electromagnetic smog can have a fundamental impact on biological processes in our body with the following effects:

  • Damage to reproductive health,

  • Damage to proteins and cellular membranes,

  • Increased oxidative stress,

  • DNA damage and alterations in gene expression in some human cell types,

  • Alteration of the blood-brain barrier system,

  • Altered electrical brain activity and cognition,

  • Increased behavioral problems in children, and

  • Risks of some cancers.

The government has established maximum exposure limits, which they say, must not be exceeded. Many scientists believe these limits are unrealistically high and sacrifice our safety in order to cater to corporate, industrial and political interests. At a time when environmental health scientists undertake global issues such as climate change and chemical toxicants in public health, there is also an urgent need to address electromagnetic smog. Much has already been shown with an evidence-based approach to the risk assessment and regulation of anthropogenic electromagnetic fields.

General Safety Specifications and Biological Effects

 

Blackman, Carl. "Cell phone radiation: evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more inclusive risk identification and assessment." 

Pathophysiology 16, no. 2-3 (2009): 205-216.
 

Danker-Hopfe, H., C. Dasenbrock, A. Huss, L. Klaeboe, L. Mjönes, L. Moberg, M. Röösli, M. R. Scarfi, E. Van Deventer, and E. Van Rongen. "Recent Research on EMF and Health Risk, Twelfth report from SSM's Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2017." (2018): 1-116.

Gandhi, Om P., L. Lloyd Morgan, Alvaro Augusto De Salles, Yueh-Ying Han, Ronald B. Herberman, and Devra Lee Davis. "Exposure limits: The underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 31, no. 1 (2012): 34-51.

 

Hardell, Lennart, Michael Carlberg, Tarmo Koppel, and Lena Hedendahl. "High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament." Molecular and clinical oncology 6, no. 4 (2017): 462-476.

 

Hardell, Lennart, Tarmo Koppel, Michael Carlberg, Mikko Ahonen, and Lena Hedendahl. "Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden and some medical aspects on public exposure to RF fields." International journal of oncology 49, no. 4 (2016): 1315-1324.

Hedendahl, Lena, Michael Carlberg, and Lennart Hardell. "Electromagnetic hypersensitivity–an increasing challenge to the medical profession." Reviews on environmental health 30, no. 4 (2015): 209-215.
 

Starkey, Sarah J. "Inaccurate official assessment of radiofrequency safety by the Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation." Reviews on environmental health 31, no. 4 (2016): 493-503.

 

 

Heart Rhythm Alteration

Grigoriev Y. Bioeffects of modulated electromagnetic fields in the acute experiments (results of Russian researches). Annu Russ Natl Comm Non-Ionising Radiat Protect. 2004:16-73. Accessed June 17, 2018.

 

Altered Metabolism and Endocrine Effects

 

Eskander, Emad F., Selim F. Estefan, and Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou. "How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?." Clinical biochemistry 45, no. 1-2 (2012): 157-161.

Meo, Sultan Ayoub, Yazeed Alsubaie, Zaid Almubarak, Hisham Almutawa, Yazeed AlQasem, and Rana Muhammed Hasanato. "Association of exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus." International journal of environmental research and public health 12, no. 11 (2015): 14519-14528.

 

Volkow, Nora D., Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Paul Vaska, Joanna S. Fowler, Frank Telang, Dave Alexoff, Jean Logan, and Christopher Wong. "Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism." Jama 305, no. 8 (2011): 808-813.

Behavioral Problems in Youth

Divan, Hozefa A., Leeka Kheifets, Carsten Obel, and Jørn Olsen. "Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children." J Epidemiol Community Health 66, no. 6 (2012): 524-529.

Milham, Samuel. "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dirty electricity." J Dev Behav Pediatr 32 (2011): 634.

Sudan, Madhuri, Jorn Olsen, Oyebuchi A. Arah, Carsten Obel, and Leeka Kheifets. "Prospective cohort analysis of cellphone use and emotional and behavioural difficulties in children." J Epidemiol Community Health 70, no. 12 (2016): 1207-1213.

Cancers and Tumors

 

Bortkiewicz, Alicja, Elzbieta Gadzicka, and Wiesław Szymczak. "Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors-A meta-analysis." (2017).
 

Carlberg, Michael, and Lennart Hardell. "Evaluation of mobile phone and cordless phone use and glioma risk using the Bradford Hill viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation." BioMed research international 2017 (2017).

 

Coureau, Gaëlle, Ghislaine Bouvier, Pierre Lebailly, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Anne Gruber, Karen Leffondre, Jean-Sebastien Guillamo et al. "Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study." Occup Environ Med 71, no. 7 (2014): 514-522.

 

Dode, Adilza C., Mônica MD Leão, Francisco de AF Tejo, Antônio CR Gomes, Daiana C. Dode, Michael C. Dode, Cristina W. Moreira, Vânia A. Condessa, Cláudia Albinatti, and Waleska T. Caiaffa. "Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil." Science of the total environment 409, no. 19 (2011): 3649-3665.

Ha, Mina, Hyoungjune Im, Mihye Lee, Hyun Joo Kim, Byung-Chan Kim, Yoon-Myoung Gimm, and Jeong-Ki Pack. "Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer." American journal of epidemiology 166, no. 3 (2007): 270-279.

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. "Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours." International journal of oncology 35, no. 1 (2009): 5-17.

Hardell, Lennart, Michael Carlberg, and Kjell Hansson Mild. "Mobile phone use and the risk for malignant brain tumors: a case-control study on deceased cases and controls." 

Neuroepidemiology 35, no. 2 (2010): 109-114.

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. "Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones1." Reviews on Environmental Health 28, no. 2-3 (2013): 97-106.

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. "Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009." Pathophysiology 22, no. 1 (2015): 1-13.

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. "Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours." International journal of oncology 35, no. 1 (2009): 5-17.

Hardell, Lennart, Michael Carlberg, and Kjell Hansson Mild. "Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases." Pathophysiology 16, no. 2-3 (2009): 113-122.

Havas, Magda. "When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?." Environmental Pollution 221 (2017): 501-505.

Havas, Magda. "Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer." Archives of Physics Research 8, no. 1 (2017): 1-2.

Hocking, Bruce, Ian R. Gordon, Heather L. Grain, and Gifford E. Hatfield. "Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers." Medical Journal of Australia 165, no. 11-12 (1996): 601-605.

Khurana, Vini G., Charles Teo, Michael Kundi, Lennart Hardell, and Michael Carlberg. "Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data." Surgical neurology 72, no. 3 (2009): 205-214.

 

Lerchl, Alexander, Melanie Klose, Karen Grote, Adalbert FX Wilhelm, Oliver Spathmann, Thomas Fiedler, Joachim Streckert, Volkert Hansen, and Markus Clemens. "Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 459, no. 4 (2015): 585-590.

 

Prasad, Manya, Prachi Kathuria, Pallavi Nair, Amit Kumar, and Kameshwar Prasad. "Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes." Neurological Sciences 38, no. 5 (2017): 797-810.

Wang, Yabo, and Xiaqing Guo. "Meta-analysis of association between mobile phone use and glioma risk." Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 12, no. 8 (2016): 298.

Wolf, Ronni, and Danny Wolf. "Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station." International Journal of Cancer 1, no. 2 (2004): 123-128.

Wyde, Michael, Mark Cesta, Chad Blystone, Susan Elmore, Paul Foster, Michelle Hooth, Grace Kissling et al. "Report of partial findings from the national toxicology program carcinogenesis studies of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)." BioRxiv (2018): 055699.

Yakymenko, I., E. Sidorik, S. Kyrylenko, and V. Chekhun. "Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems." Exp Oncol 33, no. 2 (2011): 62-70.

Yang, Ming, WenWen Guo, ChunSheng Yang, JianQin Tang, Qian Huang, ShouXin Feng, AiJun Jiang, XiFeng Xu, and Guan Jiang. "Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis." PloS one 12, no. 5 (2017).

Cardiovascular Disease

Bandara, Priyanka, and Steven Weller. "Cardiovascular disease: Time to identify emerging environmental risk factors." (2017): 1819-1823.

Cognitive Impairment, Learning and Performance Physiology

Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao, Namita Nasare, Kanu Megha, Basu Dev Banerjee, Rafat Sultana Ahmed, Digvijay Singh, Mahesh Pandurang Abegaonkar, Ashok Kumar Tripathi, and Pramod Kumari Mediratta. "Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation." International journal of toxicology 34, no. 3 (2015): 284-290.

 

Eliyahu, Ilan, Roy Luria, Ronen Hareuveny, Menachem Margaliot, Nachshon Meiran, and Gad Shani. "Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans." Bioelectromagnetics: Journal of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, The Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine, The European Bioelectromagnetics Association 27, no. 2 (2006): 119-126.

 

Leung, S., R. J. Croft, Raymond J. McKenzie, Steve Iskra, Beata Silber, N. R. Cooper, Barry O’Neill et al. "Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on performance and electrophysiology in adolescents, young adults and older adults." Clinical Neurophysiology 122, no. 11 (2011): 2203-2216.

 

Luria, Roy, Ilan Eliyahu, Ronen Hareuveny, Menachem Margaliot, and Nachshon Meiran. "Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time." Bioelectromagnetics: Journal of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, The Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine, The European Bioelectromagnetics Association 30, no. 3 (2009): 198-204.

 

Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil, Raju Suresh Kumar, Bhagath Kumar Potu, Satheesha Nayak, and Maneesh Mailankot. "Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone." Clinics 64, no. 3 (2009): 231-234.

Nittby, Henrietta, Gustav Grafström, Dong Ping Tian, Lars Malmgren, Arne Brun, Bertil RR Persson, Leif G. Salford, and Jacob Eberhardt. "Cognitive impairment in rats after long‐term exposure to GSM‐900 mobile phone radiation." Bioelectromagnetics: Journal of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, The Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine, The European Bioelectromagnetics Association 29, no. 3 (2008): 219-232.

Papageorgiou, Charalabos C., Chrissanthi D. Hountala, Argiro E. Maganioti, Miltiades A. Kyprianou, Andreas D. Rabavilas, George N. Papadimitriou, and Christos N. Capsalis. "Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task." Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 10, no. 02 (2011): 189-202.
 

Regel, Sabine J., Julie M. Gottselig, Jürgen Schuderer, Gilberte Tinguely, Julia V. Rétey, Niels Kuster, Hans-Peter Landolt, and Peter Achermann. "Pulsed radio frequency radiation affects cognitive performance and the waking electroencephalogram." Neuroreport 18, no. 8 (2007): 803-807.

Regel, Sabine J., Gilberte Tinguely, Jürgen Schuderer, Martin Adam, Niels Kuster, HANS‐PETER LANDOLT, and Peter Achermann. "Pulsed radio‐frequency electromagnetic fields: dose‐dependent effects on sleep, the sleep EEG and cognitive performance." Journal of sleep research 16, no. 3 (2007): 253-258.

 

Zwamborn, A. P. M., S. H. J. A. Vossen, B. J. A. M. Van Leersum, M. A. Ouwens, W. N. Mäkel, and Managementuittreksel Ongerubriceerd. "Effects of global communication system radio-frequency fields on wellbeing and cognitive functions of human subjects with and without subjective complaints." (2003).

DNA/RNA Genotoxic Effects and Gene Expression Alteration

 

Belyaev, Igor Y., Eva Markovà, Lena Hillert, Lars OG Malmgren, and Bertil RR Persson. "Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long‐lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ‐H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes." Bioelectromagnetics: Journal of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, The Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine, The European Bioelectromagnetics Association 30, no. 2 (2009): 129-141.

 

Belyaev, Igor Y., Lena Hillert, Marina Protopopova, Christoffer Tamm, Lars OG Malmgren, Bertil RR Persson, Galina Selivanova, and Mats Harms‐Ringdahl. "915 MHz microwaves and 50 Hz magnetic field affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1 foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons." 

Bioelectromagnetics 26, no. 3 (2005): 173-184.

Blank, Martin, and Reba Goodman. "Electromagnetic fields stress living cells." Pathophysiology 16, no. 2-3 (2009): 71-78.

Dasdag, Suleyman, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Nurten Erdal, Ozlem Izci Ay, Mustafa Ertan Ay, Senay Gorucu Yilmaz, Bahar Tasdelen, and Korkut Yegin. "Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue." International journal of radiation biology 91, no. 7 (2015): 555-561

 

Diem, Elisabeth, Claudia Schwarz, Franz Adlkofer, Oswald Jahn, and Hugo Rüdiger. "Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro." Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 583, no. 2 (2005): 178-183.

 

Franzellitti, Silvia, Paola Valbonesi, Nicola Ciancaglini, Carla Biondi, Andrea Contin, Ferdinando Bersani, and Elena Fabbri. "Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay." Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 683, no. 1-2 (2010): 35-42.

Lai, Henry, and Narendra P. Singh. "Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat." Environmental health perspectives 112, no. 6 (2004): 687-694.

 

Obajuluwa, Adejoke Olukayode, Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Olakunle Bamikole Afolabi, Khalid Adekoya, Joseph Olurotimi Sanya, and Azeez Olakunle Ishola. "Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic waves alters acetylcholinesterase gene expression, exploratory and motor coordination-linked behaviour in male rats." Toxicology reports 4 (2017): 530-534.

Phillips, Jerry L., Narendra Pal Singh, and H. Lai. "Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage." Pathophysiology 16, no. 2-3 (2009): 79-88.

Remondini, Daniel, Reetta Nylund, Jukka Reivinen, Florence Poulletier de Gannes, Bernard Veyret, Isabelle Lagroye, Emmanuelle Haro et al. "Gene expression changes in human cells after exposure to mobile phone microwaves." Proteomics 6, no. 17 (2006): 4745-4754.

 

Ruediger, Hugo W. "Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields." Pathophysiology 16, no. 2-3 (2009): 89-102.

Sarimov, Ruslan, Lars OG Malmgren, Eva Marková, Bertil RR Persson, and Igor Y. Belyaev. "Nonthermal GSM microwaves affect chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes similar to heat shock." IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 32, no. 4 (2004): 1600-1608.

Yao, Ke, Wei Wu, KaiJun Wang, Shuang Ni, PanPan Ye, YiBo Yu, Juan Ye, and LiXia Sun. "Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells." Molecular vision 14 (2008): 964.

Zothansiama, Mary Zosangzuali, Miriam Lalramdinpuii, and Ganesh Chandra Jagetia. "Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 36, no. 3 (2017): 295-305.

Immunological Effects

de Gannes, F. Poulletier, M. Taxile, S. Duleu, A. Hurtier, E. Haro, M. Geffard, G. Ruffié et al. "A confirmation study of Russian and Ukrainian data on effects of 2450 MHz microwave exposure on immunological processes and teratology in rats." Radiation Research 172, no. 5 (2009): 617-624.

 

Grigoriev, Yury G., Oleg A. Grigoriev, Alexander A. Ivanov, Antonina M. Lyaginskaya, Anton V. Merkulov, Natalia B. Shagina, Vyacheslav N. Maltsev et al. "Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results." 

Bioelectromagnetics 31, no. 8 (2010): 589-602.

Neurological Damage and Neurotransmitters

Buchner, Klaus, and Horst Eger. "Changes of clinically important neurotransmitters under the influence of modulated RF fields—a long-term study under real-life conditions." Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft 24, no. 1 (2011): 44-57.

 

Fragopoulou, Adamantia F., Athina Samara, Marianna H. Antonelou, Anta Xanthopoulou, Aggeliki Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Vougas, Eugenia Koutsogiannopoulou et al. "Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 31, no. 4 (2012): 250-274.

Nittby, Henrietta, Arne Brun, Jacob Eberhardt, Lars Malmgren, Bertil RR Persson, and Leif G. Salford. "Increased blood–brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone." Pathophysiology 16, no. 2-3 (2009): 103-112.

Oscar, Kenneth J., and T. Daryl Hawkins. "Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats." Brain research 126, no. 2 (1977): 281-293.

 

Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111(7):881-883.  Accessed June 17, 2018.

Tang, Jun, Yuan Zhang, Liming Yang, Qianwei Chen, Liang Tan, Shilun Zuo, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen, and Gang Zhu. "Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats." Brain research 1601 (2015): 92-101.

Obesity and Diabetes

Milham, Samuel. "Evidence that dirty electricity is causing the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 33, no. 1 (2014): 75-78.

Ovary Damage, Miscarriage, and Prenatal Effects

Ahmadi, Seyed Shahin, Amir Afshin Khaki, Nava Ainehchi, Alireza Alihemmati, Azam Asghari Khatooni, Arash Khaki, and Ali Asghari. "Effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic field on the alteration of ovarian follicles in rats." Electronic physician 8, no. 3 (2016): 2168.

Asghari, Ali, Amir Afshin Khaki, Asghar Rajabzadeh, and Arash Khaki. "A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system." Electronic physician 8, no. 7 (2016): 2655.

Bakacak, Murat, Mehmet Sühha Bostancı, Rukset Attar, Özge Kizilkale Yıldırım, Gazi Yıldırım, Zeyneb Bakacak, Hamide Sayar, and Agahan Han. "The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study." The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 31, no. 6 (2015): 287-292.

Gye, Myung Chan, and Chan Jin Park. "Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system." Clinical and experimental reproductive medicine 39, no. 1 (2012): 1.

Haghani, Masoud, Mohammad Shabani, and K. Moazzami. "Maternal mobile phone exposure adversely affects the electrophysiological properties of Purkinje neurons in rat offspring." Neuroscience 250 (2013): 588-598.

Han, J., Z. Cao, X. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang. "Effect of early pregnancy electromagnetic field exposure on embryo growth ceasing." Wei sheng yan jiu= Journal of hygiene research 39, no. 3 (2010): 349-352.

Khaki, Amir Afshin, Arash Khaki, and Seyed Shahin Ahmadi. "The effect of Non-ionizing electromagnetic field with a frequency of 50 Hz in Rat ovary: A transmission electron microscopy study." International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine 14, no. 2 (2016): 125.

 

Li, De-Kun, Hong Chen, and Roxana Odouli. "Maternal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy in relation to the risk of asthma in offspring." Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 165, no. 10 (2011): 945-950.

Mansouri, Elham, Ahmad Keshtkar, Arash Khaki, Ehsan Keshtkar, and Afshin Khaki. "Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Simultaneous Treatment with Allium Cepa on Biochemical Parameters and Ultrastructure of Ovarian Tissues of Rats." Iranian Journal of Medical Physics 16, no. 2 (2019): 158-165.

Oxidative Stress

Chauhan, Parul, H. N. Verma, Rashmi Sisodia, and Kavindra Kumar Kesari. "Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 36, no. 1 (2017): 20-30.

Kesari, Kavindra Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, and Jitendra Behari. "900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 30, no. 4 (2011): 219-234.

Megha, Kanu, Pravin Suryakantrao Deshmukh, Basu Dev Banerjee, Ashok Kumar Tripathi, Rafat Ahmed, and Mahesh Pandurang Abegaonkar. "Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain." Neurotoxicology 51 (2015): 158-165.
 

Yakymenko, Igor, Olexandr Tsybulin, Evgeniy Sidorik, Diane Henshel, Olga Kyrylenko, and Sergiy Kyrylenko. "Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 35, no. 2 (2016): 186-202.

Yao, Ke, Wei Wu, KaiJun Wang, Shuang Ni, PanPan Ye, YiBo Yu, Juan Ye, and LiXia Sun. "Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells." Molecular vision 14 (2008): 964.

Sleep Alterations

 

Mann, Klaus, and Joachim Röschke. "Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep." Neuropsychobiology 33, no. 1 (1996): 41-47.

 

Schmid, Marc R., Sarah P. Loughran, Sabine J. Regel, Manuel Murbach, Thomas Rusterholz, Alessia Bersagliere, Niels Kuster, and Peter Achermann. "Sleep EEG alterations: effects of different pulse‐modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields." Journal of sleep research 21, no. 1 (2012): 50-58.

 

Sperm Damage – Motility, Number and Quality

 

Agarwal, Ashok, Nisarg R. Desai, Kartikeya Makker, Alex Varghese, Rand Mouradi, Edmund Sabanegh, and Rakesh Sharma. "Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study." Fertility and sterility 92, no. 4 (2009): 1318-1325.

Dasdag, Suleyman, Muzaffer Taş, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag, and Korkut Yegin. "Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions." Electromagnetic biology and medicine 34, no. 1 (2015): 37-42.

Erogul, Osman, Emin Oztas, Ibrahim Yildirim, Tayfun Kir, Emin Aydur, Gokhan Komesli, Hasan Cem Irkilata, Mehmet Kemal Irmak, and Ahmet Fuat Peker. "Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study." Archives of medical research 37, no. 7 (2006): 840-843.

 

Falzone, Nadia, Carin Huyser, P. Becker, Dariusz Leszczynski, and Daniel R. Franken. "The effect of pulsed 900‐MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa." International journal of andrology 34, no. 1 (2011): 20-26.

Gorpinchenko, Igor, Oleg Nikitin, Oleg Banyra, and Alexander Shulyak. "The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality." Central European journal of urology 67, no. 1 (2014): 65.

Houston, B. J., Brett Nixon, Bruce Victor King, Geoffry N. De Iuliis, and Robert John Aitken. "The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function." Reproduction 152, no. 6 (2016): R263-R276.

Mouradi, Rand, Edmund Sabanegh, and Rakesh Sharma. "Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen." (2008).

 Stem Cell Altered Development

Chen, Chunhai, Qinlong Ma, Chuan Liu, Ping Deng, Gang Zhu, Lei Zhang, Mindi He et al. "Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells." Scientific reports 4 (2014): 5103. 

Eghlidospour, Mahsa, Amir Ghanbari, Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, and Hassan Azari. "Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells." Anatomy & cell biology 50, no. 2 (2017): 115-123.

Markovà, Eva, Lars OG Malmgren, and Igor Y. Belyaev. "Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: possible mechanistic link to cancer risk." Environmental health perspectives 118, no. 3 (2010): 394-399.

5G and 60GHz Biological Effects Risks

 

Betzalel, Noa, Paul Ben Ishai, and Yuri Feldman. "The human skin as a sub-THz receiver–Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?." Environmental research 163 (2018): 208-216.

 

Di Ciaula, Agostino. "Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?." 

International journal of hygiene and environmental health 221, no. 3 (2018): 367-375.

 

Koyama, Shin, Eijiro Narita, Yoko Shimizu, Yukihisa Suzuki, Takeo Shiina, Masao Taki, Naoki Shinohara, and Junji Miyakoshi. "Effects of long-term exposure to 60 GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation on the genotoxicity and heat shock protein (HSP) expression of cells derived from human eye." International journal of environmental research and public health 13, no. 8 (2016): 802.

 

Moskowitz, Joel. "5G wireless technology: millimeter wave health effects." Electromagnetic Radiation Safety 3 (2017): 3-6.

 

Pall M. 5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and international health: Compelling evidence for eight distinct types of great harm caused by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures and the mechanism that causes them. European Academy for Environmental Medicine. 

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