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The term isopathy is used to describe the employment of potentized remedies prepared from substances responsible for the disease being treated. The word is derived from the Greek “iso” meaning “equal”, and “pathos”, meaning morbus or sickness.


Isopathy is similar to homeopathy only in that remedies are potentized. However, classical isopathy differs considerably from homeopathy in that the source material is a disease-specific substance, and as such, is more akin to what is now considered a “nosode”.


A nosode is a potentized remedy prepared from diseased tissue or the product of disease (from the Greek nosos = disease, eidos = like). Classically speaking, a remedy is only homeopathic when prescribed for a patient whose symptomatology corresponds to that of the remedy - until then it is simply a “potentized” remedy.


However, with the advent of bioresonance testing, many practitioners now prescribe homeopathic remedies based on their resonance with the patient as determined by electrodermal testing or applied kinesiology. 

Samuel Hahnemann himself prepared remedies from diseased tissue, foremost of which were the so-called “miasmatic” nosodes, Psorinum, Medorrhinum and Syphilinum. He used them when their “provings were similar” to the symptoms of the individual. Since then many other nosodes have been prepared, not only from human or animal derivatives but also occasionally from plant sources. 

Nosodes are further classified based on the source and recipient. An isonosode is a potentized remedy made from diseased tissues or products of disease from the same group of patients/animals. An autonosode is a potentized remedy made from diseased tissues or products of disease from the same patient.

Also falling under the heading isopathy comes the term tautopathy, a form of isotherapy using homeopathic remedies prepared from allopathic medicine - to counteract the side effects caused by that particular medication. 

There is also a whole range of medicines available which are derived from the homeopathic potentization of organs and tissues from healthy individuals (usually human). These medicines are termed “sarcodes”, defined as "homeopathic remedies made from healthy glandular or tissue extracts”, and are used in organ support regimes, usually in conjunction with other levels of homeopathic prescribing. Their use was first advocated by Constantine Hering in 1834.

History of Homeopathy and Isopathy

Many indigenous, shamanic peoples say that medicines must be shaken or struck in order to waken them up, and waterfalls (where potentization is an ongoing process!) are universally held to be places of healing.

The probable origins of homeopathy are fascinating and almost certainly stretch back into prehistory. Many indigenous, shamanic peoples say that medicines must be shaken or struck in order to waken them up, and waterfalls (where potentization is an ongoing process!) are universally held to be places of healing. At the time of Samuel Hahnemann, late-18th-century herbalists would vigorously shake their medicines before dispensing them - not just to mix them thoroughly, but to enliven them. Potentization did not, therefore, appear out of nowhere, but was most likely based on current practices at the time Hahnemann introduced it.

The other cornerstone of homeopathy - that of treating like with like - also has its origins in the distant past, at least as far back as Ancient Greece. Hippocrates discusses two ways of healing: with likes or with contraries. The way of similars was advocated by Paracelsus in the 16th century and later by Fleming, Sydenham and other physicians in the 17th and 18th centuries.

In ancient times, people used the poisons from reptiles and insects to cure the bites of those poisonous creatures. The ancient Bohemians used snake venom to treat snake bites. Similarly, Columbian Indians made serum from snake liver and introduced that into a snake bite. For the prevention of rabies Hippocrates stated: "There is under the tongue of the rabid dog a slime formed by its saliva, which taken in drink, guards against rabies". He wrote this over 2,000 years before Constantine Hering made the nosode Lyssin (Hydrophobinum) from the saliva of a mad dog. 

Paracelsus (1493-1541) introduced the "Hormesis principle". Hormesis is the name for the biological effect that low doses of harmful or poisonous substances can act positively on an organism: "Sola dosis facit venenum" (only the dose constitutes the poison). In medicinally active substances, such a dose-dependent reverse effect may be easily proved (e.g. Digitalis, Colchicin, Opium). He also wrote that a scorpion cures the scorpion bite, and mercury cures mercury poisoning. 

Anthanasius Kircher in 1645 wrote (translated): "The poisonings in general are cured by their proper counter poisons. Thus, the bite of the spider will be cured by the application of the spider, the biting of a scorpion by the application of the scorpion, the poison of a rabid dog is drawn out of the body by the furs of the same dog."

Professor Phillipus Nettr of Venice (1718) recommended the use of dried pus from the plague eruption against the plague. Frances Home of Edinburgh used the blood of a patient suffering from measles against that disease (Homoeo medical facts and Experiments, 1754).

In the 1800’s, three principal authors dominated the history of isopathy; all three were homeopaths: Dr. Johann Josef Wilhelm Lux, Father Denys Collet and Dr. Constantine Hering.

Johann Josef Wilhelm Lux was a German veterinarian physician at the University of Leipzig, who further established basic principles of isopathy. Instead of the Law of Similars ("similia similibus curentur") like homeopathy, he proposed the Law of Equals or Sameness ("æqualia æqualibus curentur").

Dr. Lux realized he could successfully treat animals suffering from anthrax by "homeopathically potentizing" the blood of the infected animal and administering it back to the ill animal. In 1833, Lux published his results in a booklet entitled Isopathik der Contagionen, in which he claimed that contagious diseases bear within their pathological phenomena and products their own means of cure. 


The principle was described thus:  the cure of a disease results from administration of a substance which is the product of the same disease. 

Johann Joseph Wilhelm Lux

Johann Josef Wilhelm Lux (1773-1849)

Find the causative factor and, if it is of a material nature, use it in potency as a cure. Take the pathological material produced within the body (whether infectious or not), potentize it and cure the same disease with it. This is Isopathy!

- Dr. Johann Josef Wilhelm Lux

After a period of expansion, isopathy ran into continuous and increasingly severe criticism, so much so that it went into decline for several years, even within the homeopathic community. Only a few solitary practitioners continued using isopathic remedies.


It was Father Denys Collet, M.D. (1824 - 1909), a French orthodox physician and Dominican friar, who eventually revived isopathy. He and Dr. Lux are considered the primary founders of "Classical Isopathy". Father Collet published his book Isopathic Methode Pasteur par voie interne, in which he described his use of pathogenic substances in homeopathic potency. In it, he distinguishes between three types of isopathy: 

  1. Pure isopathy, which uses secretion products from the patient to cure the same disease.

  2. Organic isopathy, which cures the diseased organs with dynamized derivatives from healthy organs. 

  3. Serotherapeutic isopathy or serotherapy (dilutions of hyperimmune serum).


Father Collet worked for many years in Mosul in Iraq, where he experimented widely with isopathy. It was there in 1874, that he experimented with a diphtheria isopathic nosode during an epidemic. He called his nosode "Dipterine", and its proving was entered as Diphtherinum into the Homeopathic Repertories of Henry Clay Allen and John Henry Clarke, William Boericke and Samuel Swan.

Dr. Constantine Hering was born in Saxony in 1800 and became an assistant to the surgeon Robbi, who entrusted him with the task of writing a book confuting homeopathy once and for all (as had been requested by Robbi's publisher).


After taking a closer look at Hahnemann’s works, Dr. Hering was not only intrigued, but ended up defending Hahnemann and coming out in favor of the new method.


Dr. Hering contributed a great deal to homeopathy, but above all it is to him we owe some drug provings and the preparation of homeopathic remedies from pathological excretions and secretions, which he termed "nosodes". (Originally this term denoted any remedy extracted from pathological excretions or secretions obtained from human subjects or animals.) Dr. Hering was the first to "prove" "Lachesis" (venom of the bushmaster snake, the first nosode in history, later to become a homeopathic remedy) and the rabies "poison".

Dr. Hering also maintained that products of the human body and the various parts of the body in the healthy state all have a preferential action on the corresponding diseased parts, and as early as 1834 advised the use of diluted and dynamized homologous organs ("iso-organotherapy").


Finally, he assumed that chemical elements exerted a particular action on those organs in which they were mainly contained. His studies and papers on minerals and salts preceded the work of Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Schuessler on biochemical salts.

Dr. Hering went on to become highly influential in the expansion of homeopathic studies; and he is known for making many great contributions, including observations of the healing process, known as "Hering's Law of Cure". Dr. Hering observed that the body seeks to externalize disease, noting that symptoms will surface as part of the curative process.

  • According to one of Hering's "laws", a person's symptoms will appear and disappear in the reverse order of their appearance upon the body. Thus, a patient might re-experience symptoms during the healing process.

  • Another observation was that the body heals from top to bottom, and from more vital organs to less vital organs.


These guiding principles are used to help homeopaths understand whether a patient's health is improving or deteriorating.

Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, was well aware of isopathy, but quite biased against classical isopathy and commented negatively about it in his sixth edition of Organon:

A third mode of employing medicines in diseases has been attempted to be created by means of Isopathy, as it is called – that is to say, a method of curing a given disease by the same contagious principle that produces it. But even granting this could be done, yet, after all, seeing that the virus is given to the patient highly potentized, and consequently, in an altered condition, the cure is affected only by opposing a simillimum to a simillimum.


To attempt to cure by means of the very same morbific potency (per Idem) contradicts all normal human understanding and hence all experience. Those who first brought Isopathy to notice, probably thought of the benefit which mankind received from cowpox vaccination by which the vaccinated individual is protected against future cowpox infection and as it were cured in advance. But both, cowpox and smallpox are only similar, in no way the same disease. In many respects they differ, namely in the more rapid course and mildness of cowpox and especially in this, that is never contagious to man by more nearness. Universal vaccination put an end to all epidemics of that deadly fearful smallpox to such an extent that the present generation does no longer possess a clear conception of the former frightful smallpox plague.

Moreover, in this way, undoubtedly, certain diseases peculiar to animals may give us remedies and thus happily enlarge our stock of homoeopathic remedies.

But to use a human morbific matter (a Psorin taken from the itch in man) as a remedy for the same itch or for evils arisen therefrom is – ? (untranslatable)

Nothing can result from this but trouble and aggravation of the disease.

Isopathy provoked endless arguments in homeopathic circles. Another prominent 19th- century physician who employed isopathy was Stapf Johann Gottfried Rademacher (one of the founders of organotherapy). Organotherapy is a complementary therapy used in homeopathy to rectify diseased organs, glands, and tissues by means of glandular and tissue extracts, diluted and dynamized according to homeopathic principles.


While, homeopathy treats by "similars", organotherapy treats by "identical". (An identical remedy is administered to treat an identical abnormality.)

However, many other homeopaths disapproved of this method because the isopathic substances were rarely subjected to provings and were not prescribed based on symptom similarity as in the original Hahnemann method. 


American Institute of Homeopathy

The first national medical society in America

Emil von Behring (1854-1917), a German 
physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology, lectured on the curative principle of isopathy and developed "antitoxins" against both diphtheria and tetanus. 

In the 19th century, homeopathy was immensely popular in the United States where major figures such as Dr. Hering, Dr. James Tyler Kent and Dr. Ernest Farrington were practicing and publishing.

Homeopathy was taught at Boston University and at the Universities of Michigan, Minnesota and Iowa.


By the turn of the century, as many as 29 homeopathic journals were being published. The year 1844 marked the founding of the American Institute of Homeopathy, making it the first national medical society in America.

Two years later, in 1846, the American Medical Association (AMA) was founded; one of its first objectives was to combat homeopathy. Homeopaths could not be members of the AMA. Besides keeping homeopaths out of their societies, the AMA wanted to discourage any type of association with homeopaths.


In 1855, the AMA established a code of ethics which asserted that orthodox physicians would lose their membership in the AMA if they even consulted with a homeopath or any other “non-regular” practitioner. At the time, if a physician lost his membership in the local medical society, it meant that in some states he no longer had a license to practice medicine. Often, orthodox physicians, who controlled the medical societies, wouldn’t admit homeopathic physicians and then would arrange for their arrest for practicing medicine without a license. Ultimately, homeopaths set up their own local societies and established their own medical boards. 

In 1910, the Carnegie Foundation issued the infamous Flexner Report. The Flexner Report was an evaluation of American medical schools chaired by Abraham Flexner, in cooperation with leading members of the AMA. While pretending to be objective, the Report actually established guidelines meant to sanction orthodox medical schools and condemn homeopathic ones. The Report placed the highest value on those medical schools that had a full-time teaching faculty and those schools that taught a pathological and physiochemical analysis of the human body. Homeopathic colleges were faulted because of their preference for employing professors who were not simply teachers or researchers but also in clinical practice. 

Although homeopathic schools included many basic science courses, they also had courses in pharmacology which the Flexner Report did not consider worthwhile. The homeopathic colleges consequently obtained poor ratings, and as only the graduates of schools with high ratings had their qualifications recognized, this was a mortal blow to the teaching of homeopathy. Of 22 homeopathic colleges operating in 1900, by 1923, only two remained. By 1950, the number had dwindled to zero.


Though homeopathy and isopathy declined, they were not eliminated. In the 20th century, two works devoted entirely to nosodes were published. The first, in 1910, was The Materia Medica of the Nosodes by Dr. Henry Clay Allen. Dr. Allen generally regarded nosodes as homoeopathic and not as isopathic remedies, in that they were to be proved as homoeopathic remedies and prescribed according to the totality of the symptoms.

The second work was by the Frenchman Othon A. Julian, who published Materia Medica der Nosoden in German in 1960; the book was a success in Germany, where it revived the study of nosodes. It later came out in two French versions, one in 1962 entitled Biothérapiques et Nosodes and the other in 1977 entitled Traité de Micro-Immunothérapie Dynamisée

decline of homeopathic colleges in the US
Materia Medica of the Nosodes by Dr. Henry Clay Allen

Dr. Reinhold Voll, a German medical doctor and engineer, began researching and proving an innovative testing method now known as EAV (Electroacupuncture According to Voll). EAV is a methodology that uses a calibrated ohmmeter to measure bioelectric impedance on certain acupuncture points located on the hands and feet in response to changes in the physiological functions of organs and structures of the body. This process also evaluates bioelectric impedance of acupuncture points when substances, such as medicines, herbs, supplements, and homeopathics are placed in the same electrical circuit with the patient. Dr. Voll extensively used nosodes in his EAV method.

Dr. Hans-Heinrich Reckeweg, the founder of Homotoxicology, also made extensive use of nosodes in his bioregulatory therapy. Dr. Reckeweg noticed that he obtained better results with combinations of homeopathic remedies rather than with single remedies and took to developing formulas for his own patients. Consequently, other medical colleagues began requesting his combination formulas. The number of requests escalated so rapidly that in 1936, Dr. Reckeweg founded a company to produce his medicines. He called the company Heel (an acronym of four Latin words: herba est ex luce or "Plants come from light"). Between 1936 and 1979, he developed over 1,000 homeopathic combinations and Heel grew to become the world's leading producer and marketer of homeopathic combination products, with product distribution throughout the world. Over time, there have been continuing development and innovations of Classical Isopathy and nosodes on the part of various researchers. Mostly in the area of electronic (bioresonance frequency) remedies.

Dr. Reinhold Voll, a German medical doctor and engineer, began researching and proving an innovative testing method now known as EAV (Electroacupuncture according to Voll).

Homeopaths throughout the world experienced varying degrees of opposition from orthodox physicians, but not anywhere near the systematic or intense attacks as those beset upon American doctors. When homeopaths have been granted a relatively free environment in which to practice, homeopathy has grown and flourished. 


Homeopathy is particularly popular in Great Britain, where the Royal Family has been under homeopathic care since the 1830s. Homeopathy continues to be widespread in Europe, but it is even more popular in Asia, especially India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.


Homeopathy spread in India, in part, because of the support it received from Mahatma Gandhi, who was reported to have said that it “cures a greater number of people than any other method of treatment”, but also because it has been effective in treating many of the subcontinent’s acute infectious conditions and chronic maladies. At present, in India, homeopathy is the third most popular method of medical treatment (after allopathy and Ayurveda). There are currently over 200,000 registered homeopathic doctors, with approximately 12,000 more being added every year.


Homeopathy is also widely practiced in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Greece, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Australia, South Africa, Nigeria, and the Soviet Union - and is experiencing another renaissance in the United States.

The challenge homeopathy and isopathy face in this century - in order to reestablish themselves as important medical systems worthy of status, funding and development - is to address their modus operandi. A satisfactory explanation of how they work is essential - which makes additional research a priority.

Homeopathy is particularly popular in Great Britain, where the Royal Family has been under homeopathic care since the 1830s.
Homeopathy spread in India, in part, because of the support it received from Mahatma Gandhi, who was reported to have said that it “cures a greater number of people than any other method of treatment”.
Günther Enderlein
Professor Günther Enderlein (1872 - 1968)

Professor Günther Enderlein (1872–1968)

To better understand the differences in modern isopathy, it is necessary to review pleomorphism. These days, when people talk about isopathics, they often describe the preparations developed by Joseph Wilhelm Lux, which are also classified as nosodes. However, there are other companies that manufacture isopathics based on the research and ideas of Professor Günther Enderlein, and these are very different from nosodes - both in the way they are produced, as well as their composition.

Professor Enderlein was a German zoologist and entomologist who developed his ideas of pleomorphism from the French researcher Antoine Béchamp. Béchamp’s book, entitled Microzymas, described how a microorganism can, under precisely determined preconditions, occur in diverse developmental stages and in diversified forms, without the loss of its specific characteristics.


Béchamp was able to show that animal and plant cells contain tiny particles which continue to live after the death of the organism and out of which microorganisms can develop. In his book, Béchamp laid the foundation for the concept of pleomorphism. This view stood - and continues to stand - diametrically opposed to the prevailing ideas of monomorphism. 

The term pleomorphism refers to the ability of bacteria to change shape, or to exist in a number of morphological forms.


By contrast, the monomorphic perspective is that each bacterial cell is derived from a previously existing cell of practically the same size and shape. Cocci generally beget cocci, and rods give rise to rods. The monomorphism view, later propounded by Rudolf Virchow, Ferdinand Cohn, and Robert Koch, is that by binary fission most bacteria divide transversely to produce two new cells which eventually achieve the same size and morphology of the original. Koch, famous for his tuberculosis discoveries, was rigid in his belief that a specific germ had only one form (monomorphism). Consequently, he opposed all research showing some germs had more than one form (pleomorphism) and complex “life cycles”.


Thus, from the very beginning of bacteriology, there was conflict between the monomorphists and the pleomorphists, with the former totally overruling the latter and dominating microbiology to this day.

The monomorphic perspective has become more dominant in accepted scientific circles, medical colleges, and high school classrooms, with little mention of pleomorphism. However, as we shall see, current research shows that bacteria exhibit extreme morphological variations and undergo complex life cycles. 

Dr. Enderlein studied blood (live blood) via a darkfield microscope - which is a specially designed microscope that angles the light through the viewing plane (as compared to a bright field microscope that points the light directly upward through the viewing plane). This darkfield difference allows minute microscopic objects to be visible to the human eye (which otherwise would be lost in the sea of light flowing through the eyepiece of a bright field scope).


Professor Enderlein spent thousands of hours, and many years of his life studying organisms in live blood. He observed that blood is not sterile, and that microorganisms appear in various developmental stages and in diverse forms. He concluded that the monomorphic perspective of disease conditions favored by Louis Pasteur and others could no longer be maintained and that a pleomorphic perspective more accurately reflected the disease process. 

Bacteria Cyclogeny

Bacteria Cyclogeny

Professor Enderlein, through diligent microscopic observation of blood, came to understand that microorganisms pass through a development-cycle dependent upon their internal milieu. In 1925, he published his main work Bakterien-Cyklogenie (Bacteria Cyclogeny). "Cyclogeny" here means the transformation and traversing of all pathogenic and nonpathogenic germs through all phases (valences), from the limits of visibility and below (the realm of the virus), through the higher-valence phases of the textbook cocci and bacilli, and up to the fulminant phases of the fungi and their mycelia.


Enderlein called the smallest and lowest bacterial level the "Protits". They consist of naked nuclei ("Mych") without a protoplasmic coat ("Trophosom"). Their one-dimensional reproduction leads to the formation of fine threadlets, the "Filits"; whereas, two- and three-dimensional reproduction creates "Symprotits". Taken together, these three phases represent "Chondritosis", within which continually alternating phase transitions take place.


Professor Enderlein showed how under a healthy terrain, these "symbionts" in the Chondrite phases help the body to remain healthy (hence they are necessary for health). He developed not only a complex hypothesis, but also his own terminology - which makes reading his papers difficult for even a seasoned microbiologist.

Professor Enderlein’s Cyclogeny of Aspergillus and Mucor

Professor Enderlein’s Cyclogeny of Aspergillus and Mucor

Despite considerable resistance to the ideas of pleomorphism since the middle of the 20th century, evidence linking tissue pleomorphic forms of unknown origin with degenerative and neoplastic diseases has been emerging. 


Although these forms have been observed in stained tissue histopathologic specimens for many decades, most are ignored and generally regarded as diagnostically insignificant staining artifacts or debris. In actuality, they represent different stages of the life cycle of "stressed" bacteria: cell-wall deficient (often called L-form) that are either difficult to culture or non-culturable.


In 1969, Tedeschi et al., at the University of Camerino in Italy, reported in the journal Nature the presence of bacteria as intra-erythrocytic parasites of clinically healthy human subjects. In 2002, McLaughlin et al. also concluded that there are pleomorphic bacteria in the blood of healthy humans. 

From the pleomorphic perspective, the internal environment (milieu) is largely responsible for the establishment of the pathogenicity of fungi, viruses and bacteria. This leads to the conclusion that pathogenic organisms that participate in chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases can be reversed by modulating their milieu, thereby changing the microbiome’s pathogenicity. 

Recent reports showing that very small bacteria can be isolated from environmental samples and human blood have recently caused considerable excitement and controversy. Called nanobacteria (or nannobacteria), these very small bacteria appear as spheres and ellipses of a diameter between 0·03 and 0·2 µm, often occurring in chains or groups of similar-sized forms. Nanobacteria have been isolated from blood as clusters of coccoid cell-walled organisms (0·08–0·5 µm) and associated "elementary particles" (0·005–1 µm) which together produce biofilms containing carbonate or hydroxyapatite. Research by Kajander et al. released data from 16S rRNA gene sequences that have positioned bloodborne nanobacteria in the α-2 subgroup of the Proteobacteria. Such isolates are extremely resistant to heat and certain antibiotics and exhibit a "bizarre morphology" (i.e. extreme pleomorphism).

Although nanobacteria are usually portrayed as being novel, very small bacteria have frequently been reported in the past and have been associated with a wide variety of diseases, notably cancer. As discussed above, Antoine Béchamp, a contemporary and rival of Pasteur, claimed to have found what he called "microzymas" in the body, i.e. very small entities, capable of independent existence.


In 1873, Joseph Lister found minute granules in urine which grew by dividing into four units (so called "fissiparous generation") and which he termed "Granuligera". Observation of the existence of such elementary bodies continued with Professor Enderlein who claimed that blood cells contain primitive life forms which he termed "protits". Such protits were seen under darkfield illumination and were of the order of 0·01 µm in diameter. Professor Enderlein wrote that protits present in blood when exposed to certain terrain changes transform into larger more pathogenic bacteria or fungi. 

In 1969, Tedeschi et al., at the University of Camerino in Italy, reported in the journal Nature the presence of bacteria as intra-erythrocytic parasites of clinically healthy human subjects.
Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth Pathogens by Lida Mattman

Lida Mattman, Ph.D., in her book Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth Pathogens, mentions similar findings in research conducted by Willibald Winkler, MD, Ernest B. Almquist, MD, Emmy Klieneberger, Nobel Prize winner in 1950, and many others. 

Most notably, Dr. Gaston Naessens of Canada continued this tradition with life-long research observing these microscopic pleomorphic particles he calls "somatids". He describes the somatid as an elementary particle that can transform into pathogenic bacteria under certain toxic environmental terrain circumstances. 

Dr. Gaston Naessens

Dr. Gaston Naessens

Naessen’s Somatidian Cycle

Naessen’s Somatidian Cycle

During the early part of the 20th century, several microbiologists claimed that bacteria could pass through ultra-fine filters and then be regenerated as normal-sized bacteria on cell-free media. Kendall and Hadley, the main advocates of bacterial filterability, claimed that disease-causing bacteria, or a phase of their growth cycle, could pass through filters.

Filter-passing bacteria were originally referred to as "viruses", a confusing term first used to refer to any infective agent, then to filter-passing bacteria, and eventually reaching its modern definition following the appearance in 1928 of Thomas Rivers' and Harold Amoss’ book Filterable Viruses. In 1921, O.C. Gruner commented that filterable bacteria are part of the bacterial life cycle and are unable to grow except when in symbiotic association with a septic organism. In 1925, Alfred Coles described "filterable bodies" (0·2 µm and smaller) to have been isolated from patients suffering from a wide variety of diseases, including the common cold, herpes, influenza, meningitis and smallpox.


It could be argued - and is argued - that much of this historical literature can be ignored because it was based on microscopy and isolation techniques that have been superseded by modern molecular approaches. Some of these studies were subjected to a variety of contemporary criticism; so-called "bacterial life cycles" were, for example, thought to result from contamination and the fanciful linking of individual forms into a non-existent cycle. Other critics suggested that pleomorphic bacterial forms, including ultra-small bacteria, resulted from staining or chemically induced artifacts. Despite such criticism, evidence supporting the existence of ultra-small bacteria has been accumulating for over a century, and has been backed up by the recent application of modern molecular techniques.


In a series of papers (1970-1979) using the electron microscope and various testing procedures, an Italian team of researchers headed by Guido G. Tedeschi showed that the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and the blood platelets of both normal and diseased patients are cryptically infected with pleomorphic bacteria. Electron-dense “granular bodies” were found within the erythrocytes, and a variety of microbial forms and species were reported as mycoplasma-like and corynebacteria-like L-forms of bacteria, staphylococcus epidermidis, micrococci, cocci, and cocco-bacillary forms.

Filterable Bacteria

The historical literature on filterable bacteria and elementary bodies finds its modern equivalent in the work of Domingue and Schlegel, who showed that when filter-passing bacteria (0·2 µm) were grown on laboratory media they reverted to normalized bacteria. They reported that:

Evidence for the existence of a novel bacteriological system has been obtained from osmotically lysed and filtered human blood (membrane filters with a pore size of 0.22 micronm) placed in special culture media. These blood filtrates gave rise to ordinary bacteria for 71% of the blood specimens processed from diseased humans and for 7% of those from supposedly normal humans. Morphologically, the bacteria resembled streptococcal, staphylococcal, and gram-positive filamentous (cocco-bacillary) forms. Prior to the appearance of bacteria in the media, large and small 'dense bodies' were microscopically observed but disappeared when ordinary bacteria were apparent, Cultures of unlysed blood as conventionally performed were negative. These organisms may represent an adaptation of certain bacteria to life in the blood.

Günther Enderlein: Mucor Racemosus and Aspergillus niger Isopathy

The following 3 companies manufacture Isopathic remedies according to the principles and guidelines of
Professor Günther Enderlein:

SANUM-Kehlbeck GmbH & Co. KG

Hasseler Steinweg 9-12 
27318 Hoya, Germany

Symbiopathic™ products

Biological Health Group Corp.
130-13120 Vanier Place
Richmond, BC, V6V 2J2


sanPharma GmbH
Brandshofer Deich 10
20539 Hamburg, Germany

2 German companies manufacture Isopathic remedies according to the principles and guidelines of Professor Günther Enderlein.
A Canadian company manufacture Isopathic remedies according to the principles and guidelines of Professor Günther Enderlein

In addition to explaining pleomorphic phenomena, Professor Enderlein identified what he determined to be the most important vertebrate symbiont as Mucor racemosus fresen. He observed this organism in all its developmental stages.


According to Professor Enderlein, this endobiont is permanently present in the animal body and cannot be removed. The clinical forms of diseases depend on the state of its development. This fungal parasite exists in all stages of development within the body and can attack all organs or tissues. It expressly devours protein and can alter the pH of the blood.


In the harmless or primitive "Chondrit stage", Mucor racemosus lives in the blood and tissues of healthy people as a physiologically harmless, probably even beneficial, symbiont. However, as soon as the biochemical equilibrium changes, the Chondrits ascend into the higher phases or valences and thereby become pathogenic.

Enderlein discovered that retrograde formation of high valences to lower valences can only take place sexually via nuclear fusion, and only if Chondrits are present in high enough numbers. Hence, using an isopathic remedy of Mucor racemosus in the chondrite phase reverts pathogenic valences to a lower beneficial form or valence. Consequently, Enderlein created an Isopathic Mucor racemosus.


In 1932, Enderlein studied the black-spored mold, Aspergillus niger van Tieghen and found it to be a causative agent of pathogenic "endobiosis". However, unlike Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger is not normally physiologically present. He also created a Chondrit Isopathic for Aspergillus niger as well.

Enderlein discovered that in many people Mucor occurs together with Aspergillus. In such people, if a variety of adverse influences brings about illnesses or disorders with long-term impairment of their internal milieu, then both genera of microorganism may undergo changes in form and become harmfully active. The symptom picture caused by this development is quite different from the picture when only one genus out of the two is present. 

Thus, Professor Enderlein developed Isopathic therapy with its specific biological remedies for all nonspecific, general symptoms that pertain to the Endobiosis Complex. In his Bacteria Cyclogeny, Professor Enderlein details the development of the two mold fungi Mucor racemosus and Aspergillus niger beginning from their primitive Chondrit phases up to their pathogenic advanced phases.


Professor Enderlein called the presence of the Endobiont in mammal organisms "Endobiosis". By this are meant the apathogenic, low valanced phases of Mucor racemosus (protits, symprotits, chondrits, fibrin). Fibrin is the highest developmental form of the Chondrit, before the Endobiont changes from the primitive phase into an advanced pathogenic phase. The higher the endobiont rises in its developmental series, the more it increases in toxicity.

According to Professor Enderlein, Chondritins are apathogenic, low developmental stages of the endobiont. Specific Chondritins, such as Mucor racemosus and Aspergillus niger metabolize the virulent, advanced microorganisms by copulation, thereby initiating their breakdown into harmless primitive forms. The Chondritins act as stimulating irritants by supporting the defensive capacity of the human body through absorbing the ferments of foreign microbes. Chondritins from diverse mold fungi and yeast are available as Isopathic remedies care of several companies.

  • Allen H. The Materia Medica of the Nosodes. Philadelphia: Boericke and Tafel, 1910.

  • Behring, E.: Über Heilprinzipien, insbesondere über das ätiologische und das isopathische Heilprinzip. [On laws of healing, particularly on the law of ætiological and isopathic cure]. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift [German Medical Weekly] 5, 65-69 (1898).

  • Bird, C. (1991). The persecution and trial of Gaston Naessens. Kramer.

  • Busse, E.: Isopathia - interna et externa, 10 - 11, Haug Verlag, Ulm (1956).

  • Calabrese, E.J.: Challenging Dose Response Dogma, Hormesis presents a good model for toxicological risk assessment - and it's not homeopathy. The Scientist, 19, 2005.

  • Coles, A. F. (1925). Cancer and the filterable viruses. Br Med J ii, 270–27.

  • Coulter, H. L. (1994). The Divided Legacy, vol. V. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.

  • Davies, R. (1991). The story of Gaston Naessens. Shared Vision, 16-17.

  • Domingue, G. J. (2010). Demystifying pleomorphic forms in persistence and expression of disease: Are they bacteria, and is peptidoglycan the solution?. Discovery medicine.

  • Domingue, G. J. & Schlegel, J. U. (1997). Novel bacterial structures in human blood: cultural isolation. Infect Immun 15, 621–627.

  • Folk, R. L. & Lynch, F. L. (1997). Nannobacteria are alive on Earth as well as Mars. Proc Soc Opt Eng (SPIE) 3111, 406-419. 

  • Genneper, T., Wegener, A. (Editors): Lehrbuch der Homöopathie, 2. Auflage [Manual of Homœopathy, 2nd Edition] Karl F. Haug, 219- 220 (2004).

  • Grüger, W.: Zyklogenie und Symbioselenkung, [Cyclogeny and Guided Symbiosis], Verlag ebi-electronic ag.

  • Gruner, O. C. (1921). Bacterial life cycles. Med Ann 39, 62-64.

  • Hadley, P., Delves, E. and Klimek, G. (1931). The filtrable forms of bacteria. I. A filtrable stage in the life history of the Shiga Dysentery Bacillus. J. Infectious Diseases, 48, 1-159.

  • Hahnemann, S.: Organon der Heilkunst, ed. Schmidt, J.M. Standardausgabe der sechsten Auflage, [Organon of the Healing Art standard version of the Sixth Edition].

  • Julian OA. Materia Medica der Nosoden. Ulm Donau: Haug, 1960.

  • Julian OA. Traité de micro-immunotherapie dynamisée (biothérapiques nosodes). Paris: Librairie Le Francois, 1977.

  • Kajander, E. O., Kuronen, I., Akerman, K., Pelttari, A. & Ciftcioglu, N. (1997). Nanobacteria from blood, the smallest culturable autonomously replicating agent on Earth. Proc Soc Opt Eng (SPIE) 3111, 420-428.

  • Kendall, A.I. and Walker, A. W. 1933 Occurrence of bacteria in the filtrable stage in active bacteriophage. J. Infectious Diseases, 53, 355-371.

  • Klieneberger-Nobel, E. M. M. A. (1951). Filterable forms of bacteria. Bacteriological reviews, 15(2), 77.

  • Laidlaw, P. P., & Elford, W. J. (1936). A new group of filterable organisms. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 120(818), 292-303.

  • Lister, J. (1875). A contribution to the germ theory of putrefaction and fermentative changes and to the natural history of torulae and bacteria. Trans R Soc Edinb 27, 313-344.

  • Livingston, V. W. C., & Alexander-Jackson, E. (1970). A specific type of organism cultivated from malignancy: bacteriology and proposed classification. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 174(2), 636-654.

  • Lux W. Isopathie der Contagionen. Liepzig: Ed Kollmann, 1833.

  • Mattman, L.: Cell Wall Deficient Forms - Stealth Pathogens. 3rd Edition, CRC, (2001).

  • Margulis, L.: Die andere Evolution [The other Evolution], Spektrum Verlag, (1999).

  • McLaughlin, R. W., Vali, H., Lau, P. C., Palfree, R. G., De Ciccio, A., Sirois, M., ... & Chan, E. C. (2002). Are there naturally occurring pleomorphic bacteria in the blood of healthy humans?. Journal of clinical microbiology, 40(12), 4771-4775.

  • Prasad R. Homoeopathy booming in India. Lancet, 370: November 17, 2007, 1679-80. (Additional note: Even though the overall mortality rate in India is quite poor compared with most First World countries, this is primarily due to the large number of exceedingly poor people. The mortality rate of urban middle and upper-class people in India is comparable, if not better, than similar populations in the US.)

  • Rau, Thomas. Towards an Understanding of Pleomorphism, of Milieu Therapy and SANUM Treatment.

  • Reckeweg HH. Homotoxikologie. Ganzheitsschau einer Synthese der Medizin. Baden-Baden: Aurelia Verlag, 1981.

  • Rivers, T. M. (editor) (1928). Filterable Viruses. London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cox.

  • Schneider, P.: Bakterien und Pilze, [Bacteria and Fungi], SANUM-Post No. 58, 7-11, Semmelweis Verlag, (2002).

  • Schneider, P.: Professor Enderleins Forschung aus heutiger Sicht [Prof. Enderlein's research - a modern-day appraisal], SANUM-Post No. 56, 2-11, Semmelweis Verlag, (2001).

  • Sherman, J. M., and C. E. Safford. Primitive or filterable forms of bacteria. Science 74, no. 1928 (1931): 602-603.

  • Wuerthele-Caspe Livingston, V. (1972). Cancer: A New Breakthrough. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing. 4. Wainwright, M. (1997). Extreme pleomorphism and the bacterial life cycle – a forgotten controversy. Perspect Biol Med 40, 407–414. 5. Hesse, D. (1997).

  • Wainwright et al.: Letters in Applied Microbiology 29, 227-229 (1999).


References on Isopathy

Günther Enderlein’s Works

Günther Enderlein’s Works
Because Günther Enderlein’s publications (more than 500) were written in German, his important work has remained virtually unknown outside German-speaking countries. However, Enderlein's research was recently summarized in English by Dr Maria-M. Bleker.

Because Enderlein’s publications (more than 500) were written in German, his important work has remained virtually unknown outside German-speaking countries. However, Enderlein's research was recently summarized in English by Dr Maria-M. Bleker (Blood Examination in Darkfield, Semmelweis Verlag, Hoya, Germany, 1993, ISBN 3-925524-01-0).


Hopefully Enderlein's research will now get the attention it deserves.


Of Enderlein’s 500 scientific publications, 377 deal with entomological themes. Below are those that relate to his Endobiosis research. In the 1960’s, a list of these titles (including contributions from other authors on the same topic), was published by AKMON-Verlag (at that time located in Aumühle, near Hamburg). Reference is also made here to new printings of some of Enderlein's works and other publications by the Semmelweis Verlag, 27318 Hoya: 


  • Grundelemente der vergleichenden Morphologie und Biologie der Bakterien. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft der Natuforschenden Freunde. [Basic elements of the comparative morphology and biology of bacteria. Session reports of the Society of Friends of Natural Science Research], Berlin 1916. 

  • Bakterien-Cyclogenie, Prolegomena zu Untersuchungen über Bau, geschlechtliche und ungeschlechtliche Fortpflanzung und Entwicklung der Bakterien. [Bacterial Cyclogeny: a Prolegomena to investigations into the structure, sexual and asexual reproduction and development of bacteria]. Verlag Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin & Leipzig 1925, reprint: Semmelweis-Verlag, 27318 Hoya 1980. 

  • Über die Pliocyclodie der Bakterien. Die biologische Bedeutung der Gonite, Gonidien und Cystite der Bakterien [Concerning bacterial pliocyclody: the biological significance of the Gonits, Gonidies and Cystits of the bacteria]. Lectures, both referenced in: Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft der Natuforschenden Freunde [Session reports of the Society of Friends of Natural-Science Research], Berlin 1931. Archiv für Entwicklungsgeschichte der Bakterien [Archive for the developmental history of bacteria]. Book I, Vols. 1-4, Verlag Erna Enderlein, Berlin 1931-1940, reprint of Vol. 4, AKMON-Verlag, Aumühle 1972. 

  • Immunbiologica. Schriftreihe über Immunbiologische Krankheitsbekämpfung. [Immunobiologica: writings concerning the control of immunobiological diseases]. Vols.1- 4, Siebeneicher Verlag, Berlin Charlottenburg/Frankfurt 1946-1950, Vols. 5 & 6, Verlag IBICA, Aumühle 1954.

  • Zu den Hypothesen über die parasitäre Krebsentstehung einerseits und den seit eineinhalb Jahrhunderten entwickelten Erkenntnissen der parasitären Krebsnatur andererseits. [A consideration of the hypotheses concerning parasitic origins of cancer on the one hand, and the findings of the past 1 1/2 centuries concerning the parasitic nature of cancer on the other]. Die Volksheilkunde [The People’s Medicine] 3/1949. 

  • Vom Urheber aller chronischen Erkrankungen. [Concerning the cause of all chronic diseases]. Die Volksheilkunde [The People’s Medicine] 8/1955. 

  • Über das Wesen der chronischen Erkrankungen, speziell von Krebs und Drüsenkrebs. [Concerning the nature of chronic diseases, specifically of cancer and glandular cancer]. Private clinic and sanatorium 4/1955. 


  • AKMON. Bausteine zur Vollgesundheit und Akmosophie. [AKMON. Elements of total health and Akmosophy]. Book I/1955, Book 2/1957 (both IBICA-Verlag Aumühle), Book 3/1959, (AKMON-Verlag Aumühle). New printing: Semmelweis-Verlag, 27318 Hoya 1980.

  • Folia isopathica. [Isopathic Sheets]. Vol. 1/1961, corrected 2nd Edition 1970, AKMON Verlag Aumühle. This series was not continued.

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