James P.M. Odell, OMD, ND, L.Ac.
A spreading hepatitis outbreak that is killing and hospitalizing hundreds of children has infectious disease experts at a loss to understand its cause or causes. From the standpoint of bioregulatory medicine, disease and patterns of disharmony arise from a combination of factors. These factors are related to an underlying corruption of the body’s biological terrain in association with exposure to ever-present environmental toxins, pathogens, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (i.e., 5g), and additional psychoemotional distress and trauma. Thus, in bioregulatory medicine conditions such as hepatitis are not generally viewed due to a single cause, but rather are considered as multicausal and dependent on the integrity of the body’s biological terrain. From this paradigm, we may begin to explore the varied etiology of what is referred to in the media as a “mysterious occurrence of hepatitis in children.”
According to the WHO, the common viruses that can cause acute viral hepatitis (hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, and E) were not detected in any of the cases so far, nor does international travel appear to be a factor.1 Thus, it leaves researchers to consider other potential causes. The CDC has quickly and questionably implicated “adenovirus 41” as a potential co-cause. Adenovirus type 41 is primarily spread via the fecal-oral route and predominantly affects the gut. It can be a co-cause of pediatric acute gastroenteritis within a corrupted intestinal microbiome. This dysbiotic condition can result in diarrhea, vomiting, and fever, often accompanied by respiratory symptoms. However, adenovirus has not previously been linked to hepatitis. Additionally, liver biopsies from patients have demonstrated various degrees of hepatitis with no immunohistochemical evidence of adenovirus, and no viral particles identified by electron microscopy.
This article will explore the current children’s hepatitis outbreak from a standpoint of the body’s biological terrain’s adaption that is constantly bombarded by a multitude of environmental toxins. Suspicious triggers for the outbreak include excess childhood vaccines, potential vaccine contamination, and possible “contagious vaccinosis” from close exposure to Covid 19 “vaccine” recipients.
Hepatitis in Children
In the simplest terms, hepatitis is an inflammatory process of the liver. Liver inflammation can be associated with pathogenic organisms such as viruses (viral hepatitis), chemicals, drugs, chronic alcoholism, certain genetic disorders, or by an intoxicated overactive immune system attacking the liver, called autoimmune hepatitis. Depending on its course, hepatitis can be acute, which flares up suddenly and then goes away, or chronic, which is a long-term condition usually producing more subtle symptoms and progressive liver damage.
There had always been a background of low incidence of severe hepatitis in young children without a known cause but now the numbers have increased 10-fold. These cases are referred to as non-A-E hepatitis because although the patients are known to have hepatitis, all the markers for the usual suspects—hepatitis A, B, C, and E—are negative. To date, the etiology of this outbreak of severe hepatitis in children remains unknown.
Hepatitis is normally extremely rare in children, yet more than 275 cases of severe hepatitis, in otherwise healthy children, have been reported in 25 states and territories in recent months. Globally, the World Health Organization has received reports of more than 700 probable pediatric hepatitis cases from 34 countries, and it's investigating another 112 possible cases. While most children fully recover from hepatitis, 14% of the cases in the U.S. required liver transplants and several children have died, according to the CDC.2 That is more than double the number the group reported two weeks ago and significantly higher than the WHO’s latest count of 348.
The liver is an essential organ of the body that performs over 500 vital functions. These include removing waste products and foreign substances from the bloodstream, regulating blood sugar levels, and creating essential nutrients. Here are some of its most important functions:
Albumin Production: Albumin is a protein that keeps fluids in the bloodstream from leaking into the surrounding tissue. It also carries hormones, vitamins, and enzymes through the body.
Bile Production: Bile is a fluid that is critical to the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine.
Filters Blood: All the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes through the liver, which removes toxins, byproducts, and other harmful substances.
Regulates Amino Acids: The production of proteins depends on amino acids. The liver makes sure amino acid levels in the bloodstream remain healthy.
Regulates Blood Clotting: Blood clotting coagulants are created using vitamin K, which can only be absorbed with the help of bile, a fluid the liver produces.
Resists Infections: As part of the filtering process, the liver also removes bacteria from the bloodstream.
Stores Vitamins and Minerals: The liver stores significant amounts of vitamins A, D, E, K, and B12, as well as iron and copper.
Processes Glucose: The liver removes excess glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen. As needed, it can convert glycogen back into glucose.
Because hepatitis inflames the liver and dysregulates some of its functions, it can cause a wide range of abnormalities and symptoms. Sometimes, people with mild hepatitis do not have any symptoms, but with these recent cases in children, symptoms have included vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, dehydration, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes). They also had abnormally high levels of liver enzymes (transaminases) in their blood, which indicates liver inflammation or cellular liver damage. Other signs of liver damage include dark urine and light-colored stool. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in children and should not on their own make one suspect hepatitis, with signs of jaundice more indicative of a liver problem.
Corruption of the Biological Terrain
One in two American children has a diagnosed chronic health condition such as an autoimmune disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder, diabetes or obesity, or a mood or behavioral disorder. This is up from an estimated 2% of children diagnosed with a chronic illness in the 1960s.
Children are exposed to more environmental toxins than ever before. They are fed food and water contaminated with insecticides, fungicides, toxic chemicals, and metals. Toxic fluoride is added to the water they drink, and aluminum, strontium, and barium are in the air they breathe from climate geoengineering. If these poisonous chemicals are not completely detoxified, they are deposited and accumulate in the architectural matrix of the liver. Children additionally are commonly treated with antibiotics and drugs that can be toxic to the liver. Studies show that antibiotics reduce a child’s ability to generate infection-fighting antibodies. This onslaught of environmental toxins and drugs decompensates and weakens their body’s biological terrain.3
Additionally, millions of children are inoculated at birth with the hepatitis-B vaccine and later with other vaccines such as DPT, Hib, MMR, polio, influenza, and chickenpox vaccine. Historically, many vaccines have been recalled due to contamination. Babies 6 months and up are now being inoculated and boosted with the experimental Covid mRNA shot. Since 2017 the CDC recommends 50 doses of 14 vaccines by age 6! Compare this to the 1983 recommendation of 22 doses of 7 vaccines by age 6. The CDC recommends 72 vaccines by the age of 18. None of the 72 vaccines that are currently mandated for U.S. children have been safely tested against a placebo in pre-clinical trials.
An epidemic of chronic disease and disability is now plaguing America’s children, who are the most highly vaccinated children in the world and among the most chronically ill and disabled. The epidemic of chronic disease and disability among children has increased dramatically in the past five decades. It appears that children’s health has reached the tipping point and now we see an emergence of hepatitis.
National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 and the Cares Act Today
In 1982, when the pharmaceutical industry threatened to stop producing government-licensed and recommended vaccines for children unless vaccine manufacturers got a product liability shield, Congress gave Big Pharma most of what it wanted in the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. It was reform legislation sold to parents and the American public on the backs of children, legally required by states to get federally recommended vaccines to attend school. The vaccine manufacturers were no longer legally liable for injuries from their products. The financial burden was passed on to the taxpayer. Currently, Big Pharma spends more money lobbying on Capitol Hill influencing lawmakers than any other industry, and developing the business of vaccination is part of the political agenda.
This public-private business partnership was greatly strengthened after Sept. 11, 2001. Congress passed legislation giving more power to the Executive Branch and billions of dollars to the Departments of Health and Human Services, Defense, and Homeland Security following allegations that terrorist groups had weapons of mass destruction, specifically biological weapons, that required the development of many new vaccines to protect “national security.” More liability protection for companies making and selling vaccines was thrown in for good measure to accelerate new vaccine development.
Responding to the call by public health officials to lock down the U.S. with in-home quarantines, Congress passed the CARES Act signed into law on March 27, 2020, which cost American taxpayers over two trillion dollars. This federal legislation included $27 billion for the development of COVID-19 vaccines, drug therapies, and the purchase of pandemic medical supplies. The legislation, however, did not include a cap placed on how much money drug companies could charge and the profits they could make on the COVID-19 vaccines and drug therapies they develop with the use of money from the government.
Vaccine contamination has become an ever-present danger due to questionable manufacturing processes. Because vaccine companies are no longer legally liable for their product, they can shortcut safety testing. There are dozens of historic examples of vaccine contamination but one of the worst involves simian virus 40 or SV40. One of the first polio vaccines produced in the 1950s – the inactivated polio vaccine created by Jonas Salk – was made using rhesus monkeys that were infected with a monkey virus called simian virus 40. It was in 1960 that an NIH scientist named Bernice Eddy discovered that rhesus monkey kidney cells used to make the Salk polio vaccine and experimental oral polio vaccines could cause cancer when injected into lab animals. Later that year the cancer-causing virus in the rhesus monkey kidney cells was identified as SV40, the 40th monkey virus to be discovered.
Sadly, the American people were not told the truth about this in 1960. The SV40 contaminated stocks of Salk polio vaccine were not immediately withdrawn from the market but continued to be given to American children until early 1963, and shipped overseas to Europe and Russia, with the full knowledge of its contamination by federal health agencies. Between 1955 and early 1963, nearly 100 million American children had been given polio vaccine contaminated with the monkey virus, SV40. This is a bit personal because I was one of those children.
The presence of simian virus 40 as a contaminant of the polio vaccine from 1955 through 1961 is now well documented. Investigations have consistently demonstrated the oncogenic (cancer-causing) behavior of SV40 in animal models. Recently, investigators have provided persuasive evidence that SV40 is present in human ependymomas, choroid plexus tumors, bone tumors, and mesotheliomas, however, the etiologic role of the virus in tumorigenesis has not been established.
Additionally, the live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) can cause vaccine-strain polio in the vaccinated person or can cause vaccine-strain polio in a person who comes in contact with a recently vaccinated person’s body fluids (urine, stool, saliva) because the vaccine-strain poliovirus is shed for several weeks after vaccination. OPV has also caused a new strain of polio known as vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to emerge. VDPV is transmissible to others and can cause symptoms that are indistinguishable from wild-type poliovirus. The use of OPV was discontinued in the U.S. as of 2000 and replaced with inactivated, injectable polio vaccine, which cannot cause vaccine-strain polio. However, OPV is used widely in annual polio vaccine campaigns targeting children in many parts of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. This soon brings us to consider the concept of contagious vaccinosis, also called shedding.
The vaccine contamination stories and recalls are too numerous to recount in this article, but in late August 2021, Japanese health officials announced that they had suspended the use of 1.63 million Moderna mRNA vaccine doses after contaminants were noted in certain vials. These contaminants were reported to be stainless steel particles that were attributed to the manufacturing process. Company officials from Moderna along with representatives from Takeda Pharmaceuticals, the company that distributes the vaccine for use in Japan, reported that they did not believe that the stainless-steel contaminants would cause adverse health problems. Company officials reported that the particles were likely caused by friction between metal in the machinery used to place the stoppers on the vaccine vials. Three deaths following receipt of the contaminated vaccines have been reported by Japanese health officials as of September 7, 2021.
The CDC, among others, adamantly claims that this hepatitis outbreak in children cannot be caused by the Covid inoculations because this young age group (0-5) was not given the jab. (Some older children did receive the jab.) This rationale sounds solid, but what about the potential of contagious vaccinosis? When cases of hepatitis in children suddenly and exponentially increase during and after extensive inoculation rollout of the Covid jabs throughout the world population, contagious vaccinosis must also be considered in the light of scientific inquiry.
Contagious vaccinosis reflects the transmission of something from a vaccinated person to an unvaccinated person, usually by proximity. Historically, we know that persons who receive a live attenuated vaccine (such as oral polio still given in Africa and other countries) may transmit the pathogenic vaccine strain to others.4, 5
Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was recognized shortly after the introduction of the oral polio vaccine, with cases occurring in both vaccinees and their contacts. In many cases throughout the world, the cause of polio is the vaccine used to prevent it. Ample molecular data are now available to demonstrate that vaccine viruses can revert to full neurovirulence.6
Outbreaks of polio in China, Egypt, Haiti, Madagascar, and the Philippines caused by circulating, neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) demonstrate that these revertant strains are fully transmissible and pose significant population risks. It is worth mentioning that continuing the implementation of the oral polio vaccine in third-world countries is risky, unethical, unnecessary, and should immediately cease.
Thus, the risk of such transmission from a vaccinated person to an unvaccinated person is a concern, especially for persons who are immunocompromised or for susceptible children. The so-called experts and pharmaceutical employed fact-checkers insist that contagious vaccinosis only can happen from a live-attenuated vaccine. However, the scientific jury is still out on this situation in reference to mRNA spike protein genetic inoculation. The Covid mRNA shot is a new technology, experimental, and no long-term research has been conducted. It is not definitively known if contagious vaccinosis from any of these Covid inoculations could be a reality and danger to the population.
This issue is not being considered and is being shadow-banned by mainstream media (MSM) sources even though numerous definitive studies have demonstrated that Covid vaccines have directly caused hepatitis in adults. If reported by MSM sources, there is also the qualifying disclosure that vaccine-induced hepatitis is “rare”. However, there could be an under-reporting bias as most cases are likely to be mild or asymptomatic.
Hepatitis B Vaccine at Birth
Is there a possible association between the hepatitis B vaccine given to infants at birth and this outbreak in hepatitis? Could contamination of certain childhood vaccine lots be a co-cause? These are questions that are not being asked or studied. We know that the Hep B vaccine was licensed by the FDA without adequate proof of long-term safety. In 1986, the FDA gave Merck & Co. a license to market the first recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine, which replaced the old hepatitis B vaccines made from blood taken from human chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. In awarding Merck & Co. and, later, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, licenses to market their genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccines in the U.S., the FDA allowed both drug companies to use "safety" studies which only included a few thousand children monitored for only four or five days after vaccination to check for reactions. As "proof" their hepatitis B vaccine is safe to be used in children, Merck & Co. stated in their 1993 product insert that "In a group of studies, 1636 doses of RECOMBIVAX HB were administered to 653 healthy infants and children (up to 10 years of age) who were monitored for 5 days after each dose." Thus, no long-term safety studies have ever been performed.
Merck & Co. found that injection site and systemic complaints, such as fatigue and weakness, fever, headache, and arthralgia (joint pain), were reported following up to 17 percent of all hepatitis B injections. Because the FDA did not require drug companies to provide scientific evidence that the hepatitis B vaccine does not compromise the immune and neurological systems of children and adults over weeks, months or years post-vaccination, Merck & Co. warns in the 1996 product insert that "As with any vaccine, there is the possibility that broad use of the vaccine could reveal adverse reactions not observed in clinical trials" and SmithKline Beecham (1993) has a similar warning that "it is possible that expanded commercial use of the vaccine could reveal rare adverse reactions.”
Although doctors routinely inject hepatitis B vaccine into infants and later into children along with many other vaccines such as DPT, Hib, MMR, and chickenpox vaccine, Merck & Co. states in the 1996 product insert: "Specific data are not yet available for the simultaneous administration of RECOMBIVAX HB with other vaccines."
Background of COVID-19 Inoculation and Autoimmune Diseases in Adults – Autoimmune Hepatitis
As we attempt to uncover causes for the outbreak of hepatitis in children it is worthwhile to reflect on the prevalence of Covid inoculations and adult autoimmune diseases including hepatitis. A diverse range of autoimmune diseases following COVID-19 inoculation are increasingly being reported in adults. These immune-mediated conditions included idiopathic pericarditis, neurosarcoidosis with small fiber neuropathy, demyelination, myasthenia gravis, and autoimmune hepatitis.7, 8, 9, 10 Autoimmune hepatitis after inoculation with the Covid jab is becoming a more commonly reported adverse event worldwide.11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22
In another study of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) exacerbation following inactivated whole‐virion SARS‐CoV‐2 vaccine (CoronaVac), the authors suggest the “vaccination unmasks the undiagnosed AIH and triggers the disease flare.”23 There has also been a report of reactivation of hepatitis C virus reactivation following COVID-19 vaccination using the mRNA-based anti-COVID19 vaccine produced by BioNTech/Pfizer.24 The question arises if hepatitis following Covid inoculation in adults can in any way be related to this appearance of hepatitis in children.
Vaccine-induced Disease Enhancement
For the past two decades, coronavirus vaccine research has been hampered by one consistent vaccine adverse outcome in particular – the paradoxical immune enhancement or disease enhancement. This outcome has not only been observed in SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV vaccines but also with vaccines using formalin-inactivation for measles (this vaccine was withdrawn in 1967) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines. Disease enhancement has also been observed with the live tetravalent dengue vaccine, Dengvaxi.
Vaccine-induced disease enhancement occurs when the vaccine primes detrimental T cell response or antibodies in the recipient and increases the risk for infection or severe disease. This means that a vaccinated person may seem fine until they contract the illness, but the excess non-neutralizing antibodies not only fail to protect the person from infection but make it easier for the virus to infect cells and cause damage and, as a result, the disease is much more severe than it would have otherwise been.
Adenovirus Vaccine Platforms
Lastly, some vaccine authorities implicate adenovirus as a potential cause of these hepatitis outbreaks. Several COVID-19 vaccines use adenoviruses to deliver the gene for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Sputnik V relies on two, Ad26 and Ad5, in sequential doses. Both adenoviruses are stripped of E1, a gene that allows them to replicate, then mass-produced by cultured human cells with a stand-in copy of E1. But Ad5 is known to reacquire the gene from them on rare occasions. A source of common colds, adenoviruses typically cause mild symptoms but are occasionally lethal, and immunocompromised people could be at particular risk. Is it possible that adenovirus could escape the manufacturing process and be an active contaminant of vaccines that use adenovirus as a delivery platform? Again, authorities adamantly deny this as a possibility.
Our world is so different than the world our parents and grandparents grew up in and the things we eat, breathe, think, and do daily are profoundly impacting our children’s health. Exposure to environmental chemicals is ubiquitous and children now have significant detectable levels of toxic environmental chemicals in their blood. Toxins in food, water, and air; vaccines, mRNA shots, electromagnetic field exposures, and more, are making children sicker than any generation before them.
The sudden appearance of hepatitis in children is alarming and appears to be increasing. Though no definitive cause has been identified, from a biological medicine perspective we can start to focus on prevention by improvement of the child’s biological terrain. The good news is that many of the potential root causes including environmental toxicity, gut dysbiosis due to antibiotics, nutritional deficiencies, and excess vaccinations are treatable/preventable, and the related conditions that befall children like hepatitis are often reversible using bioregulatory medicine approaches.
Yoneyama, T., H. Yoshida, H. Shimizu, K. Yoshii, N. Nagata, O. Kew, and T. Miyamura. "Neurovirulence of Sabin 1-derived polioviruses isolated from an immunodeficient patient with prolonged viral excretion." Developments in biologicals 105 (2001): 93-98.
Novelli L., Motta F., De Santis M., Ansari A.A., Gershwin M.E., Selmi C. The JANUS of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases onset during COVID-19 - a systematic review of the literature. J. Autoimmun. 2021;117:102592. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102592. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Novelli L., Motta F., Ceribelli A., Guidelli G.M., Luciano N., Isailovic N., Vecellio M., Caprioli M., Clementi N., Clementi M., Mancini N., Selmi C., De Santis M. A case of psoriatic arthritis triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rheumatology. 2021;60:e21–e23. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keaa691. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Dotan A., Muller S., Kanduc D., David P., Halpert G., Shoenfeld Y. The SARS-CoV-2 as an instrumental trigger of autoimmunity. Autoimmun. Rev. 2021;20:102792. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102792. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Watad A., De Marco G., Mahajna H., Druyan A., Eltity M., Hijazi N., Haddad A., Elias M., Zisman D., Naffaa M.E., Brodavka M., Cohen Y., Abu-Much A., Abu Elhija M., Bridgewood C., Langevitz P., McLorinan J., Bragazzi N.L., Marzo-Ortega H., Lidar M., Calabrese C., Calabrese L., Vital E., Shoenfeld Y., Amital H., McGonagle D. Immune-Mediated disease flares or new-onset disease in 27 subjects following mRNA/DNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccines. 2021;9:435. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9050435. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Boettler, Tobias, Benedikt Csernalabics, Henrike Salié, Hendrik Luxenburger, Lara Wischer, Elahe Salimi Alizei, Katharina Zoldan et al. "SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can elicit a CD8 T-cell dominant hepatitis." Journal of hepatology (2022). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9021033/
Rela, Mohamed, Dinesh Jothimani, Mukul Vij, Akila Rajakumar, and Ashwin Rammohan. "Auto-immune hepatitis following COVID vaccination." Journal of Autoimmunity 123 (2021): 102688. https://www.icpcovid.com/sites/default/files/2021-07/Ep%20153-8%20B%20Rela%20Auto-immune%20hepatitis%20following%20Covishield%20vaccine%20J%20Autoimmunity%20July%202021.pdf
Ghielmetti, Michele, Helen Dorothea Schaufelberger, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Andreas Cerny, Eric Dayer, Diego Vergani, and Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli. "Acute autoimmune-like hepatitis with atypical anti-mitochondrial antibody after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: A novel clinical entity?." Journal of Autoimmunity 123 (2021): 102706. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279947/
Marabotto E, Ziola S, Sheijani AD, Giannini EG. COVID-19 and liver disease: not all evil comes to harm. Liver Int. 2021; 41: 237- 238.
Bril F, Al Diffalha S, Dean M, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis developing after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine: causality or casualty? J Hepatol. 2021; 75: 222- 224
Tan CK, Wong YJ, Wang LM, et al. Autoimmune hepatitis following COVID-19 vaccination: true causality or mere association? J Hepatol. 2021; 18:S0168-8278(21)00424-4.
Gemeren M, Wijngaarden P, Doukas M, Man R. Vaccine-related autoimmune hepatitis: the same disease as idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis? Two clinical reports and review. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2017; 52: 18- 22.
Londoño M.-C., Gratacós-Ginès J., Sáez-Peñataro J. Another case of autoimmune hepatitis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Still casualty? J. Hepatol. 2021 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2021.06.004. 0. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Bril F., Al Diffalha S., Dean M., Fettig D.M. Autoimmune hepatitis developing after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccine: causality or casualty? J. Hepatol. 2021 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2021.04.003. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Rocco A., Sgamato C., Compare D., Nardone G. Autoimmune hepatitis following sars-cov-2 VACCINE: MAY not be a casualty. J. Hepatol. 2021 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2021.05.038. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Tan C.K., Wong Y.J., Wang L.M., Ang T.L., Kumar R. Autoimmune hepatitis following COVID-19 Vaccination: true causality or mere association? J. Hepatol. 2021 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2021.06.009. 0. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Cao, Zhujun, Honglian Gui, Zike Sheng, Haiguang Xin, and Qing Xie. "Exacerbation of autoimmune hepatitis after COVID‐19 vaccination." Hepatology 75, no. 3 (2022): 757-759. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015495/
Lensen, Ruud, Mihai G. Netea, and Frits R. Rosendaal. "Hepatitis C virus reactivation following COVID-19 vaccination–A case report." International Medical Case Reports Journal 14 (2021): 573. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412816/