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Cannabis has been used medicinally and recreationally for over 5000 years. It is a complex plant, which contains over 500 chemical components. Of these, at least 100 are unique to the cannabis plant – the cannabinoids. The plant-derived cannabinoids are termed phytocannabinoids. The major phytocannabinoids, and those we know most about, are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC possesses psychoactive effects, while CBD is non-psychoactive (i.e. it does not alter perception or consciousness).

 

The biological activity is mainly linked to the major cannabinoids THC and CBD. However, it is becoming clear that a wider range of cannabinoids and other constituents of the cannabis plant may be involved in its various therapeutic effects. These include the cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG). These minor cannabinoids are thought to subtly modulate or enhance biological effects when taken therapeutically.

 

The other main compounds in cannabis are the terpenes. These are aromatic compounds which give cannabis varieties distinctive smells and tastes. Terpenes may have additive therapeutic action, meaning they may work together with cannabinoids to modify or enhance medicinal effects. To date, more than 120 different terpenes have been identified in cannabis. Unlike cannabinoids, all major terpenes present in cannabis (e.g. myrcene, alpha-pinene, and beta-caryophyllene) can be found abundantly in nature. It is thought that the terpenes work together with cannabinoids to modify or enhance their effects. This is known as the “entourage effect”.

The human brain and other organs contain naturally-occurring cannabinoid (CB) receptors and the chemicals that bind to them. This is called the human endocannabinoid system (ECS). The role of the ECS is to maintain our body’s ability to function normally by influencing the functioning of other systems. It plays a critical role in our nervous system and regulates multiple physiological processes. This includes the adjustment of our response to pain, appetite, digestion, sleep, mood, inflammation, and memory. The ECS also influences seizure thresholds (i.e. in epilepsy), coordination, and other processes such as the immune system, heart function, sensory integration (touch, balance, sense of space), fertility, bone physiology, the central stress response system (the HPAA), neural development, and eye pressure.

There is ongoing clinical research supporting the use of medicinal cannabis in many conditions including:

- Chronic pain, particularly pain associated with the nervous system;

- Nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and vomiting associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy used in the treatment of cancer, and anorexia and cachexia in HIV/AIDS;

- Pain and muscle spasms or cramps associated with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord damage;

 

There is also ongoing research on its use in epilepsy (particularly the drug-resistant childhood epilepsies), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, therapy-resistant glaucoma, fibromyalgia, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep disorders, bladder dysfunction, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, and depression. 

Medical cannabis

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Abrams, Donald I., Hector P. Vizoso, Starley B. Shade, Cheryl Jay, Mary Ellen Kelly, and Neal L. Benowitz. Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 82, no. 5 (2007): 572-578.

 

Abuhasira, Ran, Liat Shbiro, and Yuval Landschaft. "Medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids containing products–Regulations in Europe and North America." European Journal of Internal Medicine 49 (2018): 2-6.

Ahmed, A. I. A., M. A. Van Der Marck, G. A. H. Van Den Elsen, and M. G. M. Olde Rikkert. "Cannabinoids in late‐onset Alzheimer's disease." Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 97, no. 6 (2015): 597-606.

Amtmann, Dagmar, Patrick Weydt, Kurt L. Johnson, Mark P. Jensen, and Gregory T. Carter. "Survey of cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine® 21, no. 2 (2004): 95-104.

Ashton, C. Heather. Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review. The British Journal of Psychiatry 178, no. 2 (2001): 101-106.

 

Aso, Ester, Pol Andres-Benito, and Isidro Ferrer. "Delineating the efficacy of a cannabis-based medicine at advanced stages of dementia in a murine model." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 54, no. 3 (2016): 903-912.

Baker, David, Gareth Pryce, Gavin Giovannoni, and Alan J. Thompson. "The therapeutic potential of cannabis." The Lancet Neurology 2, no. 5 (2003): 291-298.

Bar-Sela, Gil, Marina Vorobeichik, Saher Drawsheh, Anat Omer, Victoria Goldberg, and Ella Muller. The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: prospective, observational study evaluating the treatment in cancer patients on supportive or palliative care. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013).

 

Berlekamp, Deborah. "Medical Cannabis: Pharmacy Focus on Treatment Options for Neurologic Conditions." US Pharm 41, no. 1 (2016): 45-49.

Berman, Jonathan S., Catherine Symonds, and Rolfe Birch. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial. Pain 112, no. 3 (2004): 299-306. 

 

Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras, Onder Albayram, Astrid Draffehn, Kerstin Michel, Anastasia Piyanova, Hannah Oppenheimer, Mona Dvir-Ginzberg et al. "A chronic low dose of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice." Nature Medicine 23, no. 6 (2017): 782.

Blake, David R., Philip Robson, Ming Ho, Ronald W. Jubb, and Candy S. McCabe. "Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis." 

Blanco, Juan Aparicio, Ignacio A. Romero, Jean P. Benoit, and Ana I. Torres Suárez. "Nannocannabinoids for brain tumor drug delivery." An Real Acad Farm 85, no. 2 (2019): 198-216.

Bluett, Rebecca J. "The Endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, Regulates Resilience to Stress-induced Anxiety." PhD diss., Vanderbilt University, 2017.

Boehnke, Kevin F., Evangelos Litinas, and Daniel J. Clauw. "Medical cannabis use is associated with decreased opiate medication use in a retrospective cross-sectional survey of patients with chronic pain." The Journal of Pain 17, no. 6 (2016): 739-744.

Booz, George W. "Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 51, no. 5 (2011): 1054-1061.

Bowles, Daniel W., Cindy L. O’Bryant, D. Ross Camidge, and Antonio Jimeno. The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 83, no. 1 (2012): 1-10.

 

Bruni, Natascia, Carlo Della Pepa, Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso, Enrica Pessione, Daniela Gastaldi, and Franco Dosio. "Cannabinoid delivery systems for pain and inflammation treatment." Molecules 23, no. 10 (2018): 2478.

 

Burns, Tammy L., and Joseph R. Ineck. "Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain." Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40, no. 2 (2006): 251-260.

Calabrese, Edward J., and Alberto Rubio‐Casillas. "Biphasic effects of THC in memory and cognition." European journal of clinical investigation 48, no. 5 (2018): e12920.

Campbell, V. A., and A. Gowran. "Alzheimer's disease; taking the edge off with cannabinoids?." British journal of pharmacology 152, no. 5 (2007): 655-662.

Campbell, Fiona A., Martin R. Tramèr, Dawn Carroll, D. John M. Reynolds, R. Andrew Moore, and Henry J. McQuay. "Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review." Bmj 323, no. 7303 (2001): 13.

Campos, Alline C., Manoela V. Fogaça, Franciele F. Scarante, Sâmia RL Joca, Amanda J. Sales, Felipe V. Gomes, Andreza B. Sonego, Naielly S. Rodrigues, Ismael Galve-Roperh, and Francisco S. Guimarães. "Plastic and neuroprotective mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders." Frontiers in pharmacology 8 (2017): 269.

Cao, Chuanhai, Yaqiong Li, Hui Liu, Ge Bai, Jonathan Mayl, Xiaoyang Lin, Kyle Sutherland, Neel Nabar, and Jianfeng Cai. "The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 42, no. 3 (2014): 973-984.

Carter, Gregory T., Mary E. Abood, Sunil K. Aggarwal, and Michael D. Weiss. "Cannabis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: hypothetical and practical applications, and a call for clinical trials." American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine® 27, no. 5 (2010): 347-356.

Carter, Gregory T., and Bill S. Rosen. "Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine® 18, no. 4 (2001): 264-270.

 

Cassano, Tommaso, Silvio Calcagnini, Lorenzo Pace, Federico De Marco, Adele Romano, and Silvana Gaetani. "Cannabinoid receptor 2 signaling in neurodegenerative disorders: from pathogenesis to a promising therapeutic target." Frontiers in neuroscience 11 (2017): 30.

 

Cheng, David, Adena S. Spiro, Andrew M. Jenner, Brett Garner, and Tim Karl. "Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 42, no. 4 (2014): 1383-1396.

Corroon Jr, James M., Laurie K. Mischley, and Michelle Sexton. "Cannabis as a substitute for prescription drugs–a cross-sectional study." Journal of pain research 10 (2017): 989.

Currais, Antonio, Oswald Quehenberger, Aaron M. Armando, Daniel Daugherty, Pam Maher, and David Schubert. "Amyloid proteotoxicity initiates an inflammatory response blocked by cannabinoids." NPJ aging and mechanisms of disease 2, no. 1 (2016): 1-8.

Darkovska-Serafimovska, Marija, Tijana Serafimovska, Zorica Arsova-Sarafinovska, Sasho Stefanoski, Zlatko Keskovski, and Trajan Balkanov. Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for use of cannabinoids to relieve pain in patients with malignant diseases. Journal of pain research 11 (2018): 837.

Davies, Dame Sally. Cannabis Scheduling Review Part 1 The therapeutic and medicinal benefits of Cannabis based products – a review of recent evidence. (2018).

Davis, BrentUnderstanding the Power and Complexity of Healing Hemp (Summary) (2018). 

Davis, BrentUnderstanding the Complexity of Healing Hemp (2018). 

 

Devinsky, Orrin, J. Helen Cross, Linda Laux, Eric Marsh, Ian Miller, Rima Nabbout, Ingrid E. Scheffer, Elizabeth A. Thiele, and Stephen Wright. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 376, no. 21 (2017): 2011-2020.

 

Diomede, Francesca, Domenico Scionti, Adriano Piattelli, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, and Oriana Trubiani. "Cannabidiol modulates the expression of Alzheimer’s disease-related genes in mesenchymal stem cells." International journal of molecular sciences 18, no. 1 (2017): 26.

Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Ellis, Ronald J., Will Toperoff, Florin Vaida, Geoffrey Van Den Brande, James Gonzales, Ben Gouaux, Heather Bentley, and J. Hampton Atkinson. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, no. 3 (2009): 672. 

 

Fagan, S. G., and V. A. Campbell. "The influence of cannabinoids on generic traits of neurodegeneration." British journal of pharmacology 171, no. 6 (2014): 1347-1360.

Fernández‐Ruiz, Javier, Onintza Sagredo, M. Ruth Pazos, Concepción García, Roger Pertwee, Raphael Mechoulam, and José Martínez‐Orgado. "Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?." British journal of clinical pharmacology 75, no. 2 (2013): 323-333.

Fernández‐Ruiz, Javier. "The biomedical challenge of neurodegenerative disorders: an opportunity for cannabinoid‐based therapies to improve on the poor current therapeutic outcomes." British journal of pharmacology 176, no. 10 (2019): 1370-1383.

Fernández-Ruiz, Javier, María A. Moro, and José Martínez-Orgado. "Cannabinoids in neurodegenerative disorders and stroke/brain trauma: from preclinical models to clinical applications." Neurotherapeutics 12, no. 4 (2015): 793-806.

Giacoppo, Sabrina, and Emanuela Mazzon. "Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?." Neural regeneration research 11, no. 12 (2016): 1896.

Grotenhermen, Franjo, and Kirsten Müller-Vahl. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. 
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Grotenhermen, Franjo. "Pharmacology of cannabinoids." Neuroendocrinology letters 25, no. 1/2 (2004): 14-23.

​Hayakawa, Kazuhide, Kenichi Mishima, and Michihiro Fujiwara. "Therapeutic potential of non-psychotropic cannabidiol in ischemic stroke." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 7 (2010): 2197-2212.

 

Hazekamp, Arno, and Franjo Grotenhermen. Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2005-2009. Cannabinoids 5, no. special issue (2010): 1-21.

Hill, Kevin P. Medical marijuana for treatment of chronic pain and other medical and psychiatric problems: a clinical review. Jama 313, no. 24 (2015): 2474-2483. 

 

Hirst, R. A., D. G. Lambert, and W. G. Notcutt. "Pharmacology and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis." British journal of anaesthesia 81, no. 1 (1998): 77-84.

Holgado, M. A., L. Martín-Banderas, J. Álvarez-Fuentes, and M. Fernández-Arévalo. "Neuroprotective effect of cannabinoids nanoplatforms in neurodegenerative diseases." Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 42 (2017): 84-93.

 

​Hosking, R. D., and J. P. Zajicek. Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine. British journal of anaesthesia 101, no. 1 (2008): 59-68.

 

Hughes, Blathnaid, and Caroline E. Herron. "Cannabidiol reverses deficits in hippocampal LTP in a model of Alzheimer’s disease." Neurochemical Research 44, no. 3 (2019): 703-713.

Hurd, Yasmin L. "Cannabidiol: swinging the marijuana pendulum from ‘weed’to medication to treat the opioid epidemic." Trends in Neurosciences 40, no. 3 (2017): 124-127.

Iskedjian, Michael, Basil Bereza, Allan Gordon, Charles Piwko, and Thomas R. Einarson. "Meta-analysis of cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain." Current medical research and opinion 23, no. 1 (2007): 17-24.

​Kalant, Harold. Medicinal use of cannabis: history and current status. Pain Research and Management 6, no. 2 (2001): 80-91.

 

Kirkham, Tim C., and Claire M. Williams. "Endogenous cannabinoids and appetite." Nutrition research reviews 14, no. 1 (2001): 65-86.

Klein, Thomas W. "Cannabinoid-based drugs as anti-inflammatory therapeutics." Nature Reviews Immunology 5, no. 5 (2005): 400-411.

Lee, Jonathan LC, Leandro J. Bertoglio, Francisco S. Guimarães, and Carl W. Stevenson. "Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety‐related and substance abuse disorders." 

British journal of pharmacology 174, no. 19 (2017): 3242-3256.

Li, Hongbo, Weimin Kong, Christina R. Chambers, Daohai Yu, Doina Ganea, Ronald F. Tuma, and Sara Jane Ward. "The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice." Cellular immunology 329 (2018): 1-9.

 

Lisboa, S. F., F. V. Gomes, A. L. B. Terzian, D. C. Aguiar, F. A. Moreira, L. B. M. Resstel, and F. S. Guimaraes. "The endocannabinoid system and anxiety." In Vitamins and hormones, vol. 103, pp. 193-279. Academic Press, 2017.

López, Alicia, Noelia Aparicio, M. Ruth Pazos, M. Teresa Grande, M. Asunción Barreda-Manso, Irene Benito-Cuesta, Carmen Vázquez et al. "Cannabinoid CB 2 receptors in the mouse brain: relevance for Alzheimer’s disease." Journal of neuroinflammation 15, no. 1 (2018): 1-11.

Machado Rocha, Francisco C., S. C. Stefano, R. De Cassia Haiek, L. M. Q. Rosa Oliveira, and D. X. Da Silveira. "Therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa on chemotherapy‐induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: systematic review and meta‐analysis." European journal of cancer care 17, no. 5 (2008): 431-443.

 

Mannucci, Carmen, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira V. Spagnolo, Francesco P. Busardò, Roberto D. Cas, Francesca M. Ippolito, and Gioacchino Calapai. Neurological aspects of medical use of cannabidiol. CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders) 16, no. 5 (2017): 541-553.

 

Martín-Sánchez, Eva, Toshiaki A. Furukawa, Julian Taylor, and Jose Luis R. Martin. "Systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain." Pain medicine 10, no. 8 (2009): 1353-1368.

 

Mechoulam, R., and L. Hanus. "The cannabinoids: an overview. Therapeutic implications in vomiting and nausea after cancer chemotherapy, in appetite promotion, in multiple sclerosis and in neuroprotection." Pain Research and Management 6 (2001).

Mori, Marco Aurélio, Erika Meyer, Ligia Mendes Soares, Humberto Milani, Francisco Silveira Guimarães, and Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira. "Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia." Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 75 (2017): 94-105.

Mortimer, Toni Leigh, Tom Mabin, and Anna-Mart Engelbrecht. "Cannabinoids: the lows and the highs of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting." Future Oncology 15, no. 9 (2019): 1035-1049.

Nagarkatti, Prakash, Rupal Pandey, Sadiye Amcaoglu Rieder, Venkatesh L. Hegde, and Mitzi Nagarkatti. "Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs." Future medicinal chemistry 1, no. 7 (2009): 1333-1349.

Notcutt, William, Mario Price, Roy Miller, Samantha Newport, Cheryl Phillips, Susan Simmons, and Cathy Sansom. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies. Anaesthesia 59, no. 5 (2004): 440-452. 

Nutt, David. Medicinal cannabis: time for a comeback? Lung cancer 15 (2018): 05.

 

Papagianni, Eleni P., and Carl W. Stevenson. "Cannabinoid regulation of fear and anxiety: an update." Current psychiatry reports 21, no. 6 (2019): 38.

Parker, Linda A., Erin M. Rock, and Cheryl L. Limebeer. "Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids." British journal of pharmacology 163, no. 7 (2011): 1411-1422.

Pertwee, R. G. "Cannabis and cannabinoids: pharmacology and rationale for clinical use." Complementary Medicine Research 6, no. Suppl. 3 (1999): 12-15.

Piper, Brian J., Rebecca M. DeKeuster, Monica L. Beals, Catherine M. Cobb, Corey A. Burchman, Leah Perkinson, Shayne T. Lynn, Stephanie D. Nichols, and Alexander T. Abess. "Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep." Journal of Psychopharmacology 31, no. 5 (2017): 569-575.

Porcari, Giulia S., Cary Fu, Emily D. Doll, Emma G. Carter, and Robert P. Carson. Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center. Epilepsy & Behavior 80 (2018): 240-246.

 

Raman, Chandrasekaran, Sean D. McAllister, Gulrukh Rizvi, Sonal G. Patel, Dan H. Moore, and Mary E. Abood. "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: delayed disease progression in mice by treatment with a cannabinoid." Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders 5, no. 1 (2004): 33-39.

Ranieri, Roberta, Chiara Laezza, Maurizio Bifulco, Daniela Marasco, and Anna M Malfitano. "Endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders." Recent patents on CNS drug discovery 10, no. 2 (2015): 90-112.

Reddy, Doodipala Samba, and Victoria M. Golub. "The pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy for epilepsy." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 357, no. 1 (2016): 45-55.

Reiman, Amanda. "Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs." Harm Reduction Journal 6, no. 1 (2009): 35.

​Robson, Philip. Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids. The British Journal of Psychiatry 178, no. 2 (2001): 107-115.

 

Rock, Erin M., and Linda A. Parker. "Cannabinoids as potential treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting." Frontiers in pharmacology 7 (2016): 221.

 

Rock, Erin M., Martin A. Sticht, Cheryl L. Limebeer, and Linda A. Parker. "Cannabinoid regulation of acute and anticipatory nausea." Cannabis and cannabinoid research 1, no. 1 (2016): 113-121.

Romero, Julian, and Jose Martinez-Orgado. "Cannabinoids and neurodegenerative diseases." CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders) 8, no. 6 (2009): 440-450.

 

Rossi, Silvia, Giorgio Bernardi, and Diego Centonze. "The endocannabinoid system in the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes of multiple sclerosis and of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." Experimental neurology 224, no. 1 (2010): 92-102.

Russo, Ethan B., Geoffrey W. Guy, and Philip J. Robson. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex®, a cannabis‐based medicine. Chemistry & biodiversity 4, no. 8 (2007): 1729-1743.

 

Russo, Ethan B. "Cannabis therapeutics and the future of neurology." Frontiers in integrative neuroscience 12 (2018): 51.

Sallan, Stephen E., Norman E. Zinberg, and Emil Frei III. Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 293, no. 16 (1975): 795-797.

 

Scavone, J. L., R. C. Sterling, and E. J. Van Bockstaele. "Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal." Neuroscience 248 (2013): 637-654.

 

Scharf, Eugene L. "Translating endocannabinoid biology into clinical practice: cannabidiol for stroke prevention." Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2, no. 1 (2017): 259-264.

 

Sharkey, Keith A., Nissar A. Darmani, and Linda A. Parker. "Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system." European Journal of Pharmacology 722 (2014): 134-146.

Sloan, Matthew E., Joshua L. Gowin, Vijay A. Ramchandani, Yasmin L. Hurd, and Bernard Le Foll. "The endocannabinoid system as a target for addiction treatment: Trials and tribulations." Neuropharmacology 124 (2017): 73-83.

 

Sorge, Robert Ernest, and Raphael Mechoulam. "Effect of low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on the extinction of..." Psychopharmacology 175 (2004): 360-366.

Strasser, Florian, Diana Luftner, Kurt Possinger, Gernot Ernst, Thomas Ruhstaller, Winfried Meissner, You-Dschun Ko, Martin Schnelle, Marcus Reif, and Thomas Cerny. "Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group." Journal of Clinical Oncology 24, no. 21 (2006): 3394-3400.

Svendsen, Kristina B., Troels S. Jensen, and Flemming W. Bach. "Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial." Bmj 329, no. 7460 (2004): 253.

 

Stern, Cristina AJ, Cristiane R. de Carvalho, Leandro J. Bertoglio, and Reinaldo N. Takahashi. "Effects of cannabinoid drugs on aversive or rewarding drug-associated memory extinction and reconsolidation." Neuroscience 370 (2018): 62-80.

 

Suliman, Noor Azuin, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, and Rusliza Basir. "Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆ 9-THC) induce neurogenesis and improve cognitive performances of male sprague dawley rats." Neurotoxicity research 33, no. 2 (2018): 402-411.

 

​Tomida, Ileana, Augusto Azuara-Blanco, Heather House, Maggie Flint, Roger G. Pertwee, and Philip J. Robson. "Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study." Journal of glaucoma 15, no. 5 (2006): 349-353.

Touw, Mia. The religious and medicinal uses of Cannabis in China, India and Tibet. Journal of psychoactive drugs 13, no. 1 (1981): 23-34.

 

Tramèr, Martin R., Dawn Carroll, Fiona A. Campbell, D. John M. Reynolds, R. Andrew Moore, and Henry J. McQuay. "Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review." Bmj 323, no. 7303 (2001): 16.

Wade, Derick T., Philip Robson, Heather House, Petra Makela, and Julia Aram. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical rehabilitation 17, no. 1 (2003): 21-29. 

 

Wade, Derick T., Petra Makela, Philip Robson, Heather House, and Cynthia Bateman. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal10, no. 4 (2004): 434-441. 

Walsh, Zach, Raul Gonzalez, Kim Crosby, Michelle S. Thiessen, Chris Carroll, and Marcel O. Bonn-Miller. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. Clinical psychology review 51 (2017): 15-29. 

 

Walther, Sebastian, Richard Mahlberg, Uta Eichmann, and Dieter Kunz. "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for nighttime agitation in severe dementia." Psychopharmacology 185, no. 4 (2006): 524-528.

Watt, Georgia, and Tim Karl. "In vivo evidence for therapeutic properties of cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer's disease." Frontiers in pharmacology 8 (2017): 20.

 

Webb, Charles W., and Sandra M. Webb. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey. Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health 73, no. 4 (2014): 109. 

 

Weston-Green, Katrina. "The united chemicals of cannabis: Beneficial effects of cannabis phytochemicals on the brain and cognition." (2019): 83.

Wiese, Beth, and Adrianne R. Wilson-Poe. "Emerging evidence for cannabis' role in opioid use disorder." Cannabis and cannabinoid research 3, no. 1 (2018): 179-189.

Zieba, Jerzy, Duncan Sinclair, Terri Sebree, Marcel Bonn-Miller, Donna Gutterman, Steven Siegel, and Tim Karl. "Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces anxiety-related behavior in mice via an FMRP-independent mechanism." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 181 (2019): 93-100.

Zuardi, Antonio Waldo. History of cannabis as a medicine: a review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatría 28, no. 2 (2006): 153-157.

 

​Zurier, Robert B. "Prospects for cannabinoids as anti‐inflammatory agents." Journal of cellular biochemistry 88, no. 3 (2003): 462-466.

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